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{"id":272069,"type":0,"block_id":"kcarpenter16_1350615983","theme_id":34,"user_id":97333,"path":"kori_carpenter-44","title":"How the Use of Videotaping has Impacted Competitive Swimming","pubtitle":"How the Use of Videotaping has Impacted Competitive Swimming","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/kcarpenter16_1350615983.jpg","width":607,"copyright":null,"properties":{"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":15276148,"object_id":"d0379841-ea89-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"How the Use of Videotaping has Impacted Competitive Swimming","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286800,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352145405","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Underwater Videotaping: Overview","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286792,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352145312","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Over the years the video camera along with digital recording has evolved in a major way. The presence of this technology has had an enormous impact on athletes’ performances in all sports. While most sports use forms of video to improve weaknesses and stimulate exceptional performance, one sport in specific that has been affected by advancements in this technology is competitive swimming. The use of video by coaches in training has significantly changed the way the coaches train their swimmers. In turn, performances improved because it became a possibility for swimmers and coaches to not only reflect on their own technique, but compare it to other swimmers techniques as well. This topic is important because it illustrates how the technological advancements made worldwide have influenced the sport of swimming. People finding this topic interest will include coaches, swimmers, digital technology developers, and fans of the sport. ","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":239090,"object_id":"1350668641","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Research Update 1","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":235047,"object_id":"kcarpenter161350668703","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Through the research process so far, I have learned a lot that will help me as I learn more about my topics. Foremost, I have learned what key words have been effective while typing into data bases and what have not. The most successful searches I have had so far included words such as “swim training with video”, “competitive” and “coaching”. I was able to find quite a few articles that were relevant to me topic via these search techniques. One research process that hasn’t worked well for me is the blog search on Google. I was unsuccessful in finding articles that were professional as well as relevant to my topic. My best sources have come from Proquest, one of the library’s research databases so far. One thing that I need to work on is finding more current articles. A lot of the information I have come across has been great and interesting, yet none have been that current. They are great for referencing the history of this technique and how it has progressed over the years, but the techniques in the articles themselves are outdated. 10/19/2012","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":239283,"object_id":"1350676206","particle_type":"video","picture":null,"text":"//youtube.com/embed/2YIHqhQUMjw"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":235996,"object_id":"kcarpenter16_1350615983","particle_type":"quote","picture":null,"text":"\"It&#39;s like having another coach on deck\"","content_type":"","title":"Valerie Stahl","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":256974,"object_id":"kcarpenter161351202358","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Research Update #2","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":256972,"object_id":"kcarpenter161351202329","particle_type":"video","picture":null,"text":"//youtube.com/embed/zgfFFQnW0u8&feature"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":256989,"object_id":"kcarpenter161351202527","particle_type":"quote","picture":null,"text":"\"Our athletes can compare their technique side-by-side, frame-by-frame with other swimmers\"","content_type":"","title":"USC coach Mark Schubert ","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286816,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352145643","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"A Guide to Research of My Subject:","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286804,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352145666","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"What is the History behind the Use of Underwater Videotaping by Swim Coaches?","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286820,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352145713","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"The technology behind underwater video has experienced extreme progressions within the past thirty years. One of the first breakthroughs in video technology was in 1983 when Albert Stevens revealed the Coach Scope at a World Coaching Clinic in Las Vegas. This form of video allowed “for below-the-surface viewing and videotaping from an above-the-surface vantage point” (O’Brien 12). Prior to this technology, any form of underwater video had to have been filmed from an underwater vantage point. The fact that you could film underwater without physically being present underwater was a significant advancement. \n\n\nTen years after this breakthrough digital recording was born and created gateways for even more technological advancements. Upon its first appearances, Bob Gillett, a coach of several Olympians, predicted that “Digital video was going to be a big thing in swimming” (Morales 8). His prediction was correct as many forms of digital video followed in the years to come. Over his coaching career, Gillett “witnessed the advent of Super 8 film, the shift to videotape, and the birth of digital recording. He watched the equipment become more compact, versatile, and cost-effective” (Morales 8). This man saw these drastic changes and advancements in technology firsthand, and was an experienced user of many types of video cameras because of it. \n\n\nAll of the advancements that were happening in front of Gillett presented hope for the new technology to come. He “envisioned the day when the internet would allow coaches to exchange live or recorded digital data files in a simple point and click manner” (Morales 10). In the way that the digitally native world has evolved, these aspirations have already become a reality today. In just thirty years video technology has progressed from requiring people to physically film underwater, to being able to use lightweight devices that are easy to insert in the water and sync to a computer for proper analysis. \n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286828,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352145784","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"What Kinds of Video Systems are Practical and Effective for Swimming Programs at both Professional and Non-Professional Levels?","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286830,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352145805","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"As the types of video recordings have quickly advanced, certain systems have been more effective than others. Two video systems with the high reviews are the Glidecoach and Speed Matrix technologies. Both of these systems function well and have assisted in improving swimmers times and techniques. A benefit that they both offer is the component of instant feedback. This allows them to reflect on their mistakes and then immediately return to the pool and work on fixing them. Ross Sanders, the chair of sports science at Edinburgh University acknowledges the fact that the Glidecoach technology benefits every generation and type of swimmer who is able to use it. He believes that in addition to its use among professionals “it also has the potential to make help swimmers make sure they’re doing everything correctly at a young age which gives them a chance to perform at their peak and maybe break into the elite level” (Perfect Glide). This is important because when clubs invest in an expensive product such as this, it is much more worthwhile if the system is beneficiary to every age group rather than solely the advanced swimmers. To test the reality of how effective the Glidecoach system was, a study was conducted in 2008 comparing Glidecoach to simple verbal feedback from coaches. The results showed that the combination of Glidecoach and verbal feedback produced many noticeable improvements in swimmers while verbal feedback alone produced few improvements. The use of Glidecoach and verbal feedback together improved swimmers’ performances partly due to the “software’s user friendly graphics and visual images” and the ability for the “participants to visually compare incorrect and correct glide trials and identify the differences” (Naemi, Sanders, and Thow 51). These specific parts of the technology they make it accessible to users of all ages and skills. \n\n\n\tLike Glidecoach, a video analysis system called Speed Matrix is also an effective product. This system is portable and has the ability for people to analyze why elite swimmers perform the way that they do. One unique part of the Speed Matrix is the fact that the inventor incorporated “templates and profiles of some of the world’s best swimmers to aid coaches. [They] can then set up goal times for their swimmers” using these templates which give them “accurate performance parameters for the athlete to emulate” (Stott 16). This factor offers a huge advantage to swimmers because it gives them the ability to completely plan out their race strategy and paces while keeping the technique that they need to accomplish it in mind. \n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286822,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352145872","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Is the Use of Underwater Video Beneficial to Swimmers?","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286831,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352145895","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Underwater videotaping has become a widespread phenomenon among coaches worldwide due to the fact that it is beneficial to swimmers at every level of competition. The use of this media allows swimmers to process and reflect on what they are doing in the pool and how they can work to improve it. For instance, “individuals watching themselves perform may note associated cognitive processes that influence their performances” (Jambor and Weekes 48). This shows them how they associate certain feeling they have with the way they swim. After viewing their film “they may recognize when they became distracted or were influenced by negative thinking and see how cognitive processes affected their motor skill performances” (Jambor and Weekes 48). This helps them discover how significant simple things that they can control, such as their attitude, can affect their stroke. \n\n\nOne of the greatest components of underwater video is the fact that it “allows both the swimmer and the coach to compare” their strokes with the strokes of other teammates and professionals in the sport (Don’t Overlook 23). Not only does comparing one’s own technique to that of an expert provide a visual way to learn, when it is paired with “typical coaching [it] can reduce the number of practice sessions required to improve a difficult physical skill” (Batsche 857). This is significant because every moment counts, and if it is possible to cut down the time spent focusing on technique it will allow for more time to work other important factors such as speed and endurance. Another advantage that video streaming offers is that it provides the user with “increased learner control [giving them] flexibility with respect to accessing, starting, stopping, and searching the video” (Fill and Ottewill 399). This component allows the swimmer and coach to watch the technique in slow motion and pause it at specific points to get a detailed picture of how the swimmer is swimming. Without this component it is impossible to analyze specific parts of the swimmers motions because they occur so quickly. These methods provide chances for self-reflection which in turn gives technology the ability to add “interest and internal motivation to the learning process as well as facilitating skill development” (Alston 29). Thus, the combination of all of the above elements gives swimmers the confidence and ability to improve their strokes and performance levels due to the progression of their technique.\n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286048,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352145922","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"How does the use of video in other sports compare to its purpose in swimming?","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286832,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352145948","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Video analysis is not only common in competitive swimming; it is also prevalent in numerous other sports. Although each sport is very different, it has been found that the reasoning and strategies behind video analysis is similar. Like swimming, it is common to use juxtaposition between professional and non-professional athletes in order to improve technique. This process is also known as self-modeling. By using “self-modeling in conjunction with showing a videotape of the player, players will be more likely to see their errors when they watch themselves after watching the particular skill shown by an expert” (Rowland and Stratton 79). This is prevalent in all types of sports whether it is swimming, soccer, baseball, or gymnastics. Every sport is centered on a certain technique that is necessary for the player to master in order to excel, and the most effective way to learn it is to mimic the actions of a professional. This “exposure to [self-modeling and video feedback] improves skill performance more quickly than regular practice and coaching alone” (Batsche 857). Athletes of all sports are able to use self-modeling to learn from mistakes people have made in the past and save time by not only knowing what they should do, but also what they should not do. All sports are centered on technique and “because of the importance of understanding the quality of movement, computer-based video analysis is a particularly good technological fit for physical activity professionals” (Bolt 15). No matter what sport athletes are involved in, the use of video analysis will improve their skills and transform them into better and more successful competitors. \n\n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286839,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352146106","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Annotations of Five Key Sources:","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286840,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352146129","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Alston, Charles. \"Research Update: The Candid Camera.\" Parks & Recreation 43.9 (2008): 28-30. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Oct. 2012.\n\n\nCharles Alston is an assistant professor in the Health, Physical Education and Wellness department at Bronx Community College in New York. His article was interesting because it went through the phases that people go through while being videotaped and how effectively they learn using this process. This was a credible source because he took into consideration both his feedback and the students’ feedback. He additionally watched the study he reviewed occur firsthand. It further explained information presented in other articles by describing the video recording process and the intentions behind it clearly in steps.\n\n\nMorales, Tito. \"Diving into Technology.\" Swimming Technique 2002: 8-12. ProQuest Family Health; ProQuest Research Library. Web. 21 Oct. 2012\n\n\nTito Morales was a former contributing editor of Swimming World magazine and earned a masters of Fine Arts degree from UC Berkeley and UCLA. He has written extensively on swimming and three of his stories have been recognized in The Best American Sports Writing anthology, demonstrating the depth in his knowledge of the sport. This article was noteworthy because it did a good job of describing the progression that video has taken throughout the years. It made the subject interesting by referring to a famous coach, Bob Gillett, who is very knowledgeable about the sport. It agrees with most of the other sources because it emphasizes the fact that video technology has changed drastically, yet it makes the information easier to understand because it didn’t get into a lot of scientific detail. Instead it gave an overview of the subject that the average person could relate to.\n\n\nPerfect Glide (Glide Coach, Swimming). YouTube. Youtube, 2008. Web. 30 Oct. 2012\n\n\nThis source was additionally very helpful. It was a video explaining how the Glidecoach technology worked and was explained by Ross Sanders, the chair of sports science at Edinburgh University, and Roozbeh Naemi, a mechanical engineer and part of the Glidecoach software development team. This video was helpful because it gave a visual representation of how the software worked it showed the viewer the differences it made in real swimmers firsthand. This relates to another article I read that was actually written by Naemi and two of his colleagues. It helped make the ideas expressed in that article easier to comprehend and provided further information as well.\n\n\nBatsche, Catherine, et al. “Video Modeling By Experts With Video Feedback To Enhance Gymnastics Skills” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 42.4 (2009): 855-860. Web. 30 Oct. 2012\n\n\nThis article was written by Catherine Batsche and her colleagues Eva Boyer, Victoria Fogel, and Raymond G. Miltenberger. They are all professors at the University of South Florida. This article was interesting because it discussed the effect that video has on gymnasts rather than swimmers. The information presented in this article turned out to be very similar to the information found in articles about swimming. This proved the point that regardless of the sport, the use of video is very impactful and commonly used in training. \n\n\nRowland, Amy, and Richard Stratton. “Enhancing the Effectiveness of Skill Demonstrations.” Coach and Athlete Director May/ June 2007: 78-79. Web. 30 Oct. 2012\n\n\nAmy Rowland (Ph.D) is a professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and Richard Stratton (Ph.D) is a Sports Psychology Specialist at Virginia Tech University. This article was interesting because it was geared towards coaches and suggested tips on how to make the use of videotaping beneficial. It provided several techniques that have been proven to be successful, and gave a detailed explanation of what to do during the entire filming process. This source was useful because it mirrored things that were very briefly mentioned in other sources and went into depth on how to do each step and technique correctly.\n\n\n\n\n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286731,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352146217","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Works Cited","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286714,"object_id":"kcarpenter161352146589","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Alston, Charles. \"Research Update: The Candid Camera.\" Parks & Recreation 43.9 (2008): 28-30. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Oct. 2012.\n\n\nBatsche, Catherine, et al. “Video Modeling By Experts With Video Feedback To Enhance Gymnastics Skills” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 42.4 (2009): 855-860. Web. 30 Oct. 2012\n\n\nBolt, Brian R. \"Using Computers for Qualitative Analysis of Movement.\" Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 71.3 (2000): 15-18. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 21 Oct. 2012.\n\n\n\"Don&#39;t Overlook the Little Things.\" Swimming World Magazine Apr 2005: 23-5. ProQuest Family Health; ProQuest Research Library.Web. 22 Oct. 2012 .\t\n\n\nFill, Karen, and Roger Ottewill. \"Sink Or Swim: Taking Advantage of Developments in Video Streaming.\" Innovations in Education and Teaching International 43.4 (2006): 397-408. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 19 Oct. 2012\n\n\nJambor, Elizabeth, and Esther M. Weekes. \"Videotape Feedback: Make it More Effective.\" Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 66.2 (1995): 48. ProQuest Family Health; ProQuest Research Library. Web. 21 Oct. 2012.\n\n\nMorales, Tito. \"Diving into Technology.\" Swimming Technique 2002: 8-12. ProQuest Family Health; ProQuest Research Library. Web. 21 Oct. 2012\n\n\nNaemi, Roozbeh, Ross H. Sanders, and Jacqueline L. Thow. \"Comparison of Modes of Feedback on Glide Performance in Swimming.\" Journal of Sports Sciences 30.1 (2012): 43. ProQuest Science Journals. Web. 20 Oct. 2012.\n\n\nO&#39;Brien, Kerry. \"Underwater Video Cameras.\" Swimming Technique 1998: 12. ProQuest Family Health; ProQuest Research Library. Web. 19 Oct. 2012\n\n\nPerfect Glide (Glide Coach, Swimming). YouTube. Youtube, 2008. Web. 30 Oct. 2012\n\n\nRowland, Amy, and Richard Stratton. “Enhancing the Effectiveness of Skill Demonstrations.” Coach and Athlete Director May/ June 2007: 78-79. Web. 30 Oct. 2012\n\n\nStott, Michael J. \"New Waves in Swim Technology.\" Swimming Technique 2002: 16. ProQuest Family Health; ProQuest Research Library. 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