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{"id":1297574,"type":0,"block_id":"amcult206_1372000758","theme_id":1,"user_id":438411,"path":"Surrogacy-in-the-United-States","title":"*Surrogacy in the United States*","pubtitle":"*Surrogacy in the United States*","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/amcult206_1372000758.jpg","embedImageUrl":"https://infogram.io/p/21af4a767029b68826ae3fc3d0357c9a.png","width":550,"copyright":"Copyright notice","properties":{"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,","pro":true},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":12614047,"object_id":"0c38cea9-ea1c-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"*Surrogacy in the United States*","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1658106,"object_id":"amcult2061372007371","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Infertility Rates","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2167421,"object_id":"amcult206_1372000758","chart_type_nr":21,"data":[[["","Group A","Group B"],["Value","1","1"],["From","10","4"],["Title","Women ages 15-44 who have difficulty getting pregnant or staying pregnant","Couples aged 15-44 who are affected by infertility"],["Hover text","10%","25%"]]],"custom":{"path":"girlPath"},"colors":["#ffd200","#cc3635","#286b7b","#f2b036","#b02c20","#307d99","#f28a35","#852b33","#41a3c6","#ea594e","#60284f","#53cae8","#ffe670","#da6f6e","#4c7b86","#ffca68","#ba5c53","#498ca4","#ffa760","#844a4f","#5aacc9","#ff9088","#6f4a64","#8cd7ea"],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1657800,"object_id":"amcult206_1372000758","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"About 10% (6.1 million) of all women in the United States ages 15-44 years have difficulty getting or staying pregnant. About 25% of couples in the United States have had trouble getting pregnant due to some form of infertility.","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2167442,"object_id":"amcult206_1372001159","chart_type_nr":2,"data":[[[],["Infertility due to the woman","1/3"],["Infertility due to the man","1/3"],["Infertility due to a factor of both the man and the woman","1/3"]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2167503,"object_id":"amcult206_1372002312","chart_type_nr":23,"data":[[["7.3 million","Number of women ages 15-44 in the United States who have ever used fertility services","girlPath",""],["","",""]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1657996,"object_id":"amcult2061372004569","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Benefits of Surrogacy","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1657852,"object_id":"amcult2061372002030","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Surrogacy benefits infertile couples and individuals, homosexual couples, women who have their uteruses removed/men who have their testicles removed, couples who are too elderly to risk having healthy children, and women with medical problems that would cause pregnancy to put their health at risk.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2167510,"object_id":"amcult206_1372002418","chart_type_nr":23,"data":[[["480","Number of fertility clinics in the United States","starPath",""],["40%","Increase of pregnancy rates in the past few years due to fertility aid","upPath"]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1658004,"object_id":"amcult2061372004690","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Types of Surrogacy and Success Rates","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1657901,"object_id":"amcult2061372002775","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Traditional (partial) Surrogacy: In this case, the surrogate mother uses her own eggs to provide a baby for the intended parents with the sperm of the intended father through the method known as Artificial Insemination (AI). Prices for hiring a traditional surrogate mother range from $40,000 to $65,000.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1657905,"object_id":"amcult2061372002849","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Gestational (full) Surrogacy: With this method, the surrogate mother is impregnated with both the intended mother's eggs and the intended father's sperm through In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). Prices for hiring a gestational surrogate mother range from $75,000 to $100,000.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2167539,"object_id":"amcult206_1372003050","chart_type_nr":1,"data":[[["Past GDP","Low spectrum of cost (USD)","High spectrum of cost (USD)"],["Traditional Surrogacy","40,000","65,000"],["Gestational Surrogacy","75,000","100,000"]]],"custom":{"legacyTransposeDone":true,"switchRowsColumns":true},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":1,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2167550,"object_id":"amcult206_1372003262","chart_type_nr":23,"data":[[["70-90%","Rate of success with IVF cycles as of today","starPath",""],["5 million","Number of babies born as a result of IVF since 1981","profilePath"]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2175646,"object_id":"amcult206_1372097222","chart_type_nr":5,"data":[[["title","IVF success rate"],["MIN","0%"],["MAX","100%"],["Value","80"],["Label","Almost a 100% success rate with IVF cycles!"]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1657938,"object_id":"amcult2061372003428","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Surrogacy is a growing trend as it has brought happiness to thousands of couples around the world. Because gestational surrogacy allows that both parents be biologically related to the child, it is becoming increasingly more popular than traditional surrogacy. The number of babies born to gestational surrogates per year has almost doubled from 2004 to 2008 and continues to increase.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2167566,"object_id":"amcult206_1372003637","chart_type_nr":6,"data":[[["Past GDP","2004","2005","2006","2007","2008"],["Number of gestational surrogacy cycles","1508","1872","2043","1866","2502"],["Number of gestational surrogacy babies born","738","1012","1059","1034","1395"],["Number of gestational surrogacy births","530","714","756","737","987"]]],"custom":{"legacyTransposeDone":true,"switchRowsColumns":true},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2167589,"object_id":"amcult206_1372003947","chart_type_nr":23,"data":[[["5,238","Total number of babies born to gestational surrogates from 2004 to 2008","profilePath",""],["","",""]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1658005,"object_id":"amcult2061372004738","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Argument","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1657984,"object_id":"amcult2061372004405","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"As it is an innovative reproductive technology, surrogacy has brought happiness and biological parenthood to couples throughout the world. The surrogacy business will continue to grow and will continue to improve with years to come as it is has provided infertile and homosexual couples with the seeming impossibility of a child. However, surrogacy brings rise to several legal and ethical issues and until a solution is found to these problems, people partaking or hoping to partake in a surrogate arrangement will come across several difficulties. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1665919,"object_id":"amcult2061372102045","particle_type":"quote","picture":null,"text":"Some fervently believe that if gestational surrogacy laws were to be widely accepted they would irreparably change human civilization. Gestational surrogacy is now front and center for debate. It demands attention. Motherhood itself is now on trial.","content_type":"","title":"Harold Cassidy","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1658219,"object_id":"amcult2061372009470","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Baby M Case","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1658191,"object_id":"amcult206_1372008856","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/amcult206_1372008856.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1658206,"object_id":"amcult2061372009148","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"In the first surrogacy case brought to the American courtroom, known as \"The Baby M Case,\" a legal contract between a traditional surrogate and the intended parents was tested. When Elizabeth and William Stern decided they wanted to conceive, Elizabeth was told that her multiple sclerosis would cause bearing a child to be life-threantening. The Sterns considered adoption, but were unwilling to pursue the extensive waiting time that adoption accompanies. Instead, the Sterns hired a traditional surrogate mother, Mary Beth Whitehead, who was to be artificially inseminated with the sperm of William Stern. Whitehead agreed to the surrogacy contract which stated that once the baby was born, Whitehead's parental rights would diminish and Elizabeth would become the adopted mother of the child. When the baby was born on March 27, 1986, however, Whitehead decided she wanted to keep the baby and refused to give her up to her intended parents, naming the child Sarah. When this dilemma was taken to the courtroom, the New Jersey Supreme Court declared the surrogacy contract unenforceable as it was in violation of New Jersey statutes and public policy. They also found such an arrangement to be a form of baby-selling and thought it unethical. After a long battle, Judge Sorkow and the Family Court claimed that the terms of the contract must be enforced and the parental rights of Whitehead must be terminated. After two years of debate over the case, the Sterns were granted full legal custody of the child, whom they named Melissa, and Whitehead was granted visitation rights.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1658200,"object_id":"amcult206_1372009027","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/amcult206_1372009027.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1658203,"object_id":"amcult2061372009053","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Above is a picture of \"Baby M\" being forcefully taken away from the surrogate mother, Mary Beth Whitehead, as Mr. and Mrs. Stern stand by.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1664215,"object_id":"amcult2061372088395","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"State Laws","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2167814,"object_id":"amcult206_1372007790","chart_type_nr":4,"data":[[[],["Allow and regulate","8"],["Void and unenforceable","2"],["Unclear or silent law; favorable case law","11"],["Unclear or silent law; unclear or unfavorable case law","8"],["Valid and enforceable","1"],["Prohibited by statute","4"],["No law or published case law","10"],["Payments prohibited","4"],["Gestational allowed; Traditional prohibited","1"],["Both state law and case law are silent","1"]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1658161,"object_id":"amcult2061372008286","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"This graph demonstrates the various state laws regarding surrogacy contracts and the number of states that practice each law.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2175102,"object_id":"amcult206_1372092543","chart_type_nr":29,"data":[[["","% of IVF cycles that are performed on gestational surrogates by state averages"],["Courts favor enforcement","4.3"],["Valid, enforceable, and relatively unregulated","3.2"],["Permitted but heavily regulated","2.6"],["Void and unenforceable",".5"],["Prohibited",".22"]]],"custom":{"dynamicShape":false},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1664853,"object_id":"amcult2061372093459","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"This pyramid chart represents the percent of IVF cycles that correspond with gestational surrogates in relation to state laws. We can see that the stricter the laws are on surrogacy, the less IVF cycles are performed. We can then make the claim that laws on banning surrogacy stand in the way of women becoming surrogate mothers, thus taking their rights to their own bodies away from them which is a huge ethical debate.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1665240,"object_id":"amcult2061372096543","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"The total number of legal cases tied to surrogacy is unknown","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1665818,"object_id":"amcult2061372101362","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Exploitation/Baby selling","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1665821,"object_id":"amcult2061372101400","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Although many find it unethical for a state to have strict laws that prohibit or greatly limit surrogacy, the ethical issues that arise due to legal cases in non-regulating states are just as, or more, controversial. After the conclusion of the Baby M Case, for instance, many people began to consider the idea of exploitation of the surrogate mothers, and defining the surrogates and the babies themselves as objects.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1665993,"object_id":"amcult2061372102532","particle_type":"quote","picture":null,"text":"“Will the courts' recognition of the validity of the surrogate contract create a class of \"breeders?\" Will all the advances for which women have worked now be lost due to a subset of women who spend their most productive years as breeders in the same way one might breed a race horse?”\n","content_type":"","title":"Unknown","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1667659,"object_id":"amcult206_1372119439","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/amcult206_1372119439.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1667661,"object_id":"amcult2061372119469","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"In the film \"Baby Mama,\" a wealthy, single woman decides she wants a baby but is unable to conceive as a cause of her misshapen uterus. She then hires a gestational surrogate to bear her child for a large fee. Throughout the film, the surrogate mother and the intended mother seem to be getting along fine, but as soon as they start fighting, the intended mother calls out the surrogate mother on being \"white trash.\" ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1667693,"object_id":"amcult206_1372119858","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/amcult206_1372119858.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1667694,"object_id":"amcult2061372119885","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"We can see in this picture the extent to which the surrogate mother is being exploited as low class. In this way, surrogate mothers can be equated with prostitutes, who are known as coming from poor families and selling their body for money.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1658429,"object_id":"amcult2061372013360","particle_type":"quote","picture":null,"text":"Baby M was a powerful statement that clearly explained the sixteen policies and statutory provisions that rendered surrogacy contracts unenforceable and exploitative of women. After the Baby M case, most European countries quickly outlawed surrogacy","content_type":"","title":"Harold Cassidy","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1665344,"object_id":"amcult2061372097563","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Conclusion","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1665350,"object_id":"amcult2061372097608","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"To conduct a survey, I asked 30 random strangers (15 males and 15 females found in the Shapiro Library) if they thought that the concept of surrogacy was unethical in general, based on their own previous knowledge of the subject.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2175954,"object_id":"amcult206_1372099738","chart_type_nr":4,"data":[[["Past GDP","Boys","Girls"],["Surrogacy is ethical","6","11"],["Surrogacy is unethical","9","4"]]],"custom":{"legacyTransposeDone":true,"switchRowsColumns":true},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":1,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1665432,"object_id":"amcult2061372098445","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"I then asked a different 10 people (5 males and 5 females found in the Shapiro Library) a different question. I briefly discussed examples of legal cases that arise from surrogacy contracts (i.e. the Baby M Case), why these cases come about (i.e. debate on who will be granted custody of the child), and the ethical debate that accompanies the cases (i.e. surrogacy exploiting women).\n1. I first asked them if they thought a federal law on surrogacy should be established.\n2. Second, I asked them if they thought establishing a federally regulated law on surrogacy would decrease the amount of legal cases, based on the information I gave them.\n3. I then asked, assuming the amount of legal cases did decrease with a federal law put in place, if they thought there would be less debate on the ethics of surrogacy.\n4. 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