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{"id":1035951,"type":0,"block_id":"ameliajulia_1367441157","theme_id":20,"user_id":356221,"path":"Olfaction-and-Gustation","title":"Olfaction and Gustation","pubtitle":"Olfaction and Gustation","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/ameliajulia_1367441157.jpg","width":700,"copyright":null,"properties":{"publishType":0,"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":12615142,"object_id":"187366b8-ea1c-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Olfaction and Gustation","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1103952,"object_id":"ameliajulia1367441567","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"By Julia Paulsen and Amelia Wells","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1103902,"object_id":"ameliajulia1367441373","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Olfaction--Sense of Smell","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1119752,"object_id":"ameliajulia1367539337","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"There are 1,000 to 4,000 different odors humans sense. The two olfactory organs are what supply that sense of smell. When air is inhaled across the organs, receptors are stimulated. The organs are located (as pictured below) on either side of the nasal septum. Each organ consists of an olfactory epithelium and is connected to the Olfactory bulb.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1119748,"object_id":"ameliajulia_1367539293","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/ameliajulia_1367539293.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1128831,"object_id":"ameliajulia1367605580","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"The olfactory epithelium is where all the smell reception takes place. The layer of columnar epithelium supports the structure and surrounds the millions of olfactory neurons. There is microvilli on the surface of the columnar epithelium that helps to move the mucus secreted by the cells. That mucus prevents the buildup of potentially harmful stimuli and keeps the area free of foreign particles like dust or debris. The basal cells are stem cells that eventually develop into the fully formed receptor cells. The receptor cells embedded in the epithelium all extend cilia into the mucus to detect odor.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1128913,"object_id":"ameliajulia1367606037","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"When odor molecules enter the nose they diffuse across the layer of mucus. Once the dissolved chemicals, or odorants, come in contact with the receptor cell cilia, the permiability of the membrane changes and an action potential is started. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1104106,"object_id":"ameliajulia_1367442044","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/ameliajulia_1367442044.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1129054,"object_id":"ameliajulia1367606660","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"All of the olfactory receptor cells also extend upwards and create bundles that form the Olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb is where the very first synapse occurs. Axons leaving the bulb travel along the olfactory tract towards the olfactory cortex of the cerebrum, the hypothalamus, and portions of the limbic system. The extensive connection of olfactory axons to the limbic system explain the intense emotional and behavioral responses to smells. The olfactory cortex is where we identify and become aware of smells. The hypothalamus is often used when an animal detects sexual stimuli or odors. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1119842,"object_id":"ameliajulia_1367539979","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/ameliajulia_1367539979.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1103919,"object_id":"ameliajulia1367441454","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Gustation-Taste","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1128817,"object_id":"ameliajulia1367605535","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Did you know your tongue has 5 different sections of taste? There are around 10,000 taste buds on your tongue and they each facilitate in tasting a different flavor. We mostly identify with sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1128841,"object_id":"ameliajulia_1367605646","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/ameliajulia_1367605646.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1129001,"object_id":"ameliajulia1367606447","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Each taste bud have microvilli that extend into the taste pore. These microvilli also act as receptors, and they interact with taste. After the tasted is sensed, an action potential is generated within that cell of the taste bud. After this process, the nerve fibers of the taste bud carry the nerve impulse to the brain. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1128940,"object_id":"ameliajulia_1367606174","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/ameliajulia_1367606174.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1128850,"object_id":"ameliajulia1367605723","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"There are 4 different kinds of taste buds on your tongue. Fungiform- mushroom shaped, and are mostly present at the dorsal surface of the tongue as well as the sides Filiform- thing long taste buds, these taste buds are mechanical and are not involved in gustation Foliate- ridges and grooves towards the posterior part of the tongue Circumvallate- there is only about 10-14 and they are located at the back of the tongue, they are arranged in a circular-shape","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1129120,"object_id":"ameliajulia_1367607018","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/ameliajulia_1367607018.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1129136,"object_id":"ameliajulia1367607091","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Once the receptors have picked up the taste, the cells send information from various receptors and ion channels to the gustatory pathway. The gustatory cortex is a brain structure that deals with perception of taste. It has two structures: the anterior insula, and the frontal operculum. The gustatory cortex identify the flavor you are experiencing. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1129253,"object_id":"ameliajulia_1367607814","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/ameliajulia_1367607814.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1129255,"object_id":"ameliajulia1367607830","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Our tongue is not the only thing in our body that detects flavor. Without our sense of smell we would not be able to taste the delicious flavors of the foods we eat. Texture of the good and our sense of touch also play a big role in whether our body will enjoy or reject our meal. If the texture is not right but the flavor is alright, most likely the body will reject the food. Our sense of vision also plays a big role. 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