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{"id":1376779,"type":0,"block_id":"rachelita1_1373919988","theme_id":20,"user_id":492697,"path":"Machu-Picchu-8840","title":"Machu Picchu","pubtitle":"Machu Picchu","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/rachelita1_1373919988.jpg","width":550,"copyright":"Rachel Aguilar Carné:1136713","properties":{"publishType":0,"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":16498738,"object_id":"780958cc-eabf-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Machu Picchu","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805109,"object_id":"rachelita1_1373920408","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/rachelita1_1373920408.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805113,"object_id":"rachelita11373920441","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"¿Cómo construían las terrazas sobre la montaña, donde se ubica la ciudad, considerando que se encuentra entre dos fallas tectónicas?","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805127,"object_id":"rachelita11373920556","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Cuando los ingenieros incas construían, el primer paso que debían tomar en cuenta era estabilizar la montaña. Ellos lograron esto mediante la construcción de una defensa notable de terrazas. La construcción debía de comenzar en la parte más baja o en el fondo. En otras palabras, ellos debían comenzar con las terrazas. Las terrazas eran fundamentales para Machu Picchu. Mientras algunas terrazas eran usadas para la agricultura en pequeña escala, su propósito principal era sostener la montaña en su lugar mientras drenaban lejos un gran volumen de agua de lluvia. Con este diseño básico, los incas lograron construir o fijar la primera terraza en la montaña, luego comenzaban con la siguiente, replicándolas hasta llegar a la cima. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805867,"object_id":"rachelita1_1373929705","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/rachelita1_1373929705.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805834,"object_id":"rachelita11373929129","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"¿Cómo permeabilizaban los muros?","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805835,"object_id":"rachelita11373929169","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Ellos lograban permeabilizar los muros colocando dentro de estos una capa de tierra vegetal, debajo una capa de tierra arenosa y finalmente una capa de grava y grandes rocas, esto hacia que el agua se filtrara dentro de los mismos. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805874,"object_id":"rachelita1_1373929747","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/rachelita1_1373929747.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805837,"object_id":"rachelita11373929196","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"¿Cómo drenaban el agua de la ciudad (cómo distribuían y conducían agua)?","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805840,"object_id":"rachelita11373929223","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"La lluvia era capaz de convertir en lodo las laderas, lo cual podía hacer que Machu Picchu se deslizara o cayera. Los incas evitaron esto creando un sistema de drenaje muy sofisticado. Dentro de las terrazas, los arqueólogos encontraron una capa de rica tierra vegetal, debajo de esto, había una capa de tierra arenosa y finalmente, había grava y piedras grandes. Entonces por medio de estos materiales, se lograba filtrar el agua y las terrazas nunca se inundaban debido a que el agua es filtrada a través de estas capas progresivas de material. En efecto, lo que los incas hicieron fue construir un sistema de drenaje subterráneo, que era un tipo de conducto, el cual ayudaba a llevar lejos el agua de manera segura. En lugar de correr cuesta abajo en la montaña, el agua lentamente encontraba su lugar para entrar en la tierra, por lo que casi no se da la erosión. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805882,"object_id":"rachelita1_1373929820","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/rachelita1_1373929820.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805846,"object_id":"rachelita11373929304","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"¿Cómo era el trabajo de cantera, qué herramientas utilizaban, y qué sistema utilizaban para colocar las piedras en su lugar en el muro (ejemplificado en el video)?","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805848,"object_id":"rachelita11373929334","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"A pesar de su falta de instrumentos de hierro, los incas fueron capaces de algún modo de transformar el granito, una piedra muy dura. Existe una pista de como lograron hacer esto en la cantera de Machu Picchu. La idea era crear un cuello en el bloque de piedra y luego causar que este se fracturara, este era el método básico utilizado por los incas para cortar las rocas. La técnica que utilizaron los incas fue el martilleo directo. Con las rocas más duras o resistentes, ellos comenzaban con una herramienta larga, luego gradualmente utilizaban herramientas más pequeñas y duras para darle esa superficie fuerte, lisa y firme. Cuando los cortadores habían cortado lo suficiente las piedras, ellos las llevaban utilizando rodillos de leño o barro y los empujaban hasta el lugar de construcción. El paso final era mover la piedra hasta su lugar y hacerla coincidir con su pareja. Usaban unos como puntos que servían de sostén, los cuales utilizaban para mover la roca hasta su lugar, a estos les pusieron vigas para poder elevar hacia arriba las piedras. Una vez que la piedra estaba en su lugar, se golpeaban esos puntos. \n\n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1805877,"object_id":"rachelita1_1373929777","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/rachelita1_1373929777.jpg"}],"theme":{"createdAt":"2016-04-22T04:54:06.000Z","updatedAt":"2016-12-28T10:32:12.000Z","logoImages":[""],"charts":{"wordcloud":{"labels":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"Arial"}},"treemap":{"labels":{"value":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"},"name":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"}}},"table":{"cellBackground":"#ffffff","headerBackground":"#fff","cellColor":"#3e372b","headerColor":"#3e372b","shapeFill":"35b099"}},"color":{"bg":"#ffffff","text":"#000000","chart":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#000000"},"element":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#000000"}},"colorPresets":[],"localFonts":[],"font":{"common":{"fontFamily":"PT 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