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{"id":274299,"type":0,"block_id":"afigueroa_1350664194","theme_id":30,"user_id":97329,"path":"Literature-Review--Prevention-of-Head-Injuries","title":"Literature Review: Prevention of Head Injuries","pubtitle":"Literature Review: Prevention of Head Injuries","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/afigueroa_1350664194.jpg","width":664,"copyright":null,"properties":{"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":12475432,"object_id":"3d9e580a-ea16-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Literature Review: Prevention of Head Injuries","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":240560,"object_id":"afigueroa1350799261","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Research Update #1","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":238705,"object_id":"afigueroa1350664232","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/afigueroa1350664232.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":238701,"object_id":"afigueroa1350664250","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Research Update 1 - Flow Chart of How are found resources.","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":241991,"object_id":"1350862175","particle_type":"video","picture":null,"text":"//youtube.com/embed/Jzlrrp6-4_A&feature"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":240564,"object_id":"afigueroa1352092849","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Research Update #2","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284257,"object_id":"afigueroa1352092978","particle_type":"video","picture":null,"text":"//youtube.com/embed/QgIWTIR-FoM"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284259,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093008","particle_type":"video","picture":null,"text":"//youtube.com/embed/duAQPRH_REM"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284260,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093025","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Opening Overview","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284261,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093060","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"\tHead injuries are serious injuries that occur in sports because of the high impact and contact that happens in sports like football. Recently there has been more and more research about the severity and aftermath of a head injury, especially concussions. Along with the post-head injury research came the awareness about prevention. It is important for athletes and Athletic Trainers to be aware of the dangers in order of it in order to help to prevent or lessen the consequences of the injury. It seems that, within the past couple of years, there has been a lot about head injuries in football with all the new research that has been done and all the technology that is able to be used. ","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284262,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093067","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Research Guide","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284264,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093111","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"What is a head injury specifically a concussion?","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284248,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093143","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"\tHead injuries can include anything regarding the head region of the body, such as the skull, brain, eyes, ears, and mouth. It can range from a small laceration to severe damage including a gash, a fracture, or a deformity. One head injury that is main topic in the sports world in recent years is concussions. Concussion is defined by the 2nd International Conference on Concussions in Sport by the 5 point:\n(1)\tConcussion maybe caused by a direct blow to the head, face, neck or elsewhere on the body with an ‘impulsive’ force transmitted to the head.\n(2)\tConcussions typically results in the rapid onset of short lived impairment of neurological function that resolves spontaneously.\n(3)\tConcussion may result in neuropathological changes, but the acute clinical symptoms largely reflect a functional disturbance rather than structural injury.\n(4)\tConcussions results in a graded set of clinical syndromes that maybe or may not involve loss of consciousness. Resolution of the clinical and cognitive symptoms typically follow a sequential cause\n(5)\tConcussion is typically associated with grossly normal structural neuroimaging studies.\nIn simpler terms, a concussion “occurs when the head either accelerates rapidly and then is stopped or is spun rapidly” (Head Injuries in Football). The most common symptoms are “headaches, amnesia, dizziness, blurred vision and nausea,” (McCrory) however it doesn’t mean that a concussion only occurs when these symptoms appear. According to the research done by Evan Breedlove, it “suggests that some high school players suffer undiagnosed changes in brain function and continue playing even though they are impaired” (Smith). The research Evan Breedlove did was written up in the Sports Illustrated Special Edition article where it talks about how, when conducting a survey using the baseline ImPACT test, scores of a player who never suffered a concussion flubbed the visual memory section of the ImPACT test”(Epstein). The research is making experts question what areas of the brain a concussion affects and what could be other signs or symptoms. They are also realizing that “the real damage is being inflicted by minor impacts that chip away at the brain” (Epstein). It is no longer the one big hit that professionals are worried about. The “violent shaking causes the brain cells to become depolarized and fire all their neurotransmitters at once in an unhealthy cascade, flooding the brain with chemicals and deadening certain receptors linked to learning and memory” (Head Injuries in Football). Since head injuries are so dangerous it is important to prevent concussions.\n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284265,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093150","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"How can head injuries be prevented by protective equipment?","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284266,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093195","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"\tWhen people think of prevention of injury, many think that helmets are a key factor to prevention because it is supposed to protect. However, there is a lot of criticism surrounding protective equipment and what injuries they actually protect from. Common protective equipment includes “helmet, faceguard, mouth guard, eyewear, ear wear, and throat protection” (Anderson). Each are designed to protect a certain part of the body and from a certain injury. Helmets are the protective equipment associated with head injuries and concussions. According to SportsConcussion.org, “helmets were designed to reduce the number of skull fractures and hematomas” and they go on to say that helmets do not provide protection from concussion because “they simply are not able to stop the acceleration/deceleration or rotational activity of the brain after impact”. Multiple sources have agreed that helmets provide protection for head injuries such as skull fractures but there isn’t evidence that the helmets reduce the number of concussions. Helmets are just not built to protect from concussions.\n\tAs the sport of football has evolved, it has become increasingly faster, more impactful, and higher risk involved. There has been a lot of controversy recently about the helmet standards because “the standard has not changed meaning since it was written in 1973, despite rising concussion rates in youth football” (Head Injuries in Football). Since helmets have not changed with the game of football, it does not provide the correct protection. Also, the maintenance and proper fit of the helmet affects the ability for it to provide protection. Helmets are often used for years and reused so “the age of the helmet and the number of impacts it has been subjected to” (Prevention) is important to be aware of, as well as how “used helmets worn by the vast majority of young players encountered stark lapses in the industry’s few safety procedures” (Head Injuries in Football). Helmets aren’t being tested like they should and have a questionable standard. This has caused a lot of controversy especially when “more than 2,000 former NFL players have filed suit against the league and the helmet manufacturer, Riddell, alleging that they deliberately had information about the dangers of concussions and hits to the head” (O’Connor). Helmets are still important in protecting the head, but it is questionable about how much protection it provides and if the “use of protective equipment may alter playing behavior deleteriously so that the athlete actually increases his or her risk of brain injury” (McCrory), it is called the “concept of risk compensations” (P. Schamasch). \n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284267,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093199","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"How can head injuries be prevented by education through education about proper playing techniques and different game mentality? ","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284270,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093282","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"\tSince head injuries cannot be 100% prevented, one of the best ways to help with prevention is education. Awareness campaigns talk about how players, athletic trainers, parents, and coaches need to know about proper techniques for tackling, ways concussions occur, the signs and symptoms, and also how to have a mentality that is positive. Experts are “urging coaches and referees to change the win at all cost mentality” (Lamberti). It is hard for athletes and coaches to change their mentality for techniques. In the Pop Warner level “the rules would affect coaches more than players forcing them to reevaluate some of their time-honored drills” (O’Connor). Players “have been taught that effective run blocking requires three point of contact on the defender: hand, hand, helmet” (Epstein). It shows how the mentality of the game is to hit the head and that is the technique players are taught. Football has a mentality that a player is weak if they show signs of injury, which increases the risk of concussions going undiagnosed. However “even in the gladiator culture of football, the growing awareness of brain injury has transformed the act of hiding concussion from signifying bravery to one of stupidity” (Epstein). Concussions need to be taken seriously and through education about their seriousness, players won’t be afraid to tell coaches. In the video Head Games, former NFL players, soccer players, and NHL players, even youth players confessed that they would not tell their coach in fear of being seen as weak by teammates and others. One young player was criticized by another player’s parents for not being tough enough or not caring enough about the sport because he told the coach he had a concussion. A common phrase in multiple sources that is trying to be emphasized and viewed as a good way to prevent head injuries is “keeping the head out of the game”. By keeping your head out of situations where it could possibly be hit or injured is one of the best ways to prevent injury. So, being educated on how to keep your head out of the game is important. \n\tSpecific techniques that can be changed would help cut down on both big blows to the head as well as the small multiple hits. In the New York Times article, the chairman of the Pop Warner’s medical advisory board talks about how the board has been discussing the possibility of banning three point stances for the lineman because it would cut down on the risk of head injuries and head to head contact. Youth organizations are trying to reduce the risk of head injuries because in the Head Games movie, the doctor says the younger an athlete is when experiencing concussions or repetitive head hits, the more long-term consequences the athlete will experience. Coaches also have to change drills because the drill “bull in the ring”, a common drill at the Pop Warner level, exposes young athletes to repetitive minor hits. Sports Illustrated points out how significant changes do not have to be made to lower the risk and that “there are issues we can address without changing football or racking up the cost…If its simply the number of hits that predict whether a player will suffer brain damage then like pitch counts that can be managed” (Epstein). Managing the amount of full contact practice would be one way to reduce risk of head injuries. By cutting down the number of days a week the players are in full pads will be one way to prevent concussions. Another very simple change that is talked about by Sports Illustrated is how players should give each other high fives instead of head butts because the head to head contact causes force that is greater than what experts say cause a concussion. Prevention doesn’t mean stop playing the sport but instead finding safer ways of playing as the doctors in the Head Games state. \n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284272,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093291","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"What ways do people in authority help with the prevention?","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284273,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093326","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"\tSince about 2006, committees have been set up by the football organizations to help reduce the number of head injuries and insure the safety of the athletes. Along with the committee have come new rule changes. “In December 2009, the league announced that it would impose its most stringent rules to date on managing concussions, requiring players who exhibit any significant signs of concussion to be removed from a game or practice and be barred from returning the same day” (Head injuries in Football). It is a significant rule change because the NFL is in the spotlight and a model for football all over. With taking steps towards prevention, other football organizations also took the step towards changing rules, by not allowing just a coach, parent, or athletic trainer to clear a player but having a doctor be the only one according to New York Times. Another brand new rule implemented by the national federation this year in all levels of football is that it “requires players to leave the field for at least one down if they lose their helmets during a play”(Toporek). Committees are taking the initiative to make sure players’ safety is first. Another group in authority are referees who get to determine if hits were illegal during the game. In the informational article that advices parents, Rosseau says “referees should enforce the penalty every time he or she spots the offense, even if they end up blowing their whistles the whole game” (Lamberti) because it teaches the young athletes the consequences of the hit and it also prevents a major head injury to occur on purpose. It is important that those in authoritative positions to focus on the prevention and ways of reducing head injuries because head injures affect not just the present for an athlete.","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284274,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093335","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"What are the consequences of not preventing head injuries?","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284275,"object_id":"afigueroa1352093361","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"\tIn the movie Head Games, the filmmakers focus on the consequences of not preventing head injuries and how serious both the short-term and long-term consequences could be. Multiple doctors and former athletes talk about some of the short-term consequences of a concussion including double vision, unconsciousness, blurred vision, stars, headaches, and nausea. Not only are these symptoms of a concussion, they can also be an effect of a concussion that athletes continue to have after they are considered able to return to play. The article, “Head Injuries in Football,” talks about a survey among NFL players that found “those who had had concussions reported more problems with memory, concentration, speech impediments, headaches and other neurological problems than those who had not” (Head Injuries in Football). In the movie many former players talked about how those short term consequence can end up sticking with them for the rest of their lives. More serious long-term consequences the doctors in the movie, Head Games, found were in the gray matter of the brain; there was loss of nerve cells that causes structural brain damage and that contributes to behavior changes and depression. Head injuries aren’t something to take lightly because the consequences can be lasting.","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284459,"object_id":"afigueroa1352103711","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Annotated Sources ","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284462,"object_id":"afigueroa1352103753","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Epstein, David. \"The Damage Done.\" While Concussive Hits Dominate the Debate. Sports Illustrated., 1 Nov. 2010. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1176377/1/index.htm>. \nSports Illustrated article provided in detail the research results from another source and expert. It is written by David Epstein and refers to researchers from Purdue University and former NFL players. The article is filled with the results of the research and then explanations of what the results mean. It provides information about what a concussion is and then builds off of it by explaining the dangers to then providing helpful ways of lowering the risks of concussions.\n\n\"Head Injuries in Football.\" New York Times. N.p., 21 Oct. 2010. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/f/football/head_injuries/index.html>. \nHead Injuries in Football is a source that gave specific examples about concussions and football. It also talks a lot about the controversy and criticisms with the helmets. Other sources mentioned parts about the issue with helmets but this article gave specific and much more information. It refers to certain major changes in NFL that the Head Games refers to as well.\n\nJames, Steve, dir. Head Games. Prod. Bruce Sheridan . 2012. Film. 5 Nov 2012.\nHead Games was a film that gave a time line on how concussions have become a major topic in the sports world. Chris Nowinksi and his research was the focus of the film. It referenced events or similar opinions that all other sources mentioned. It was the source that brought the other sources together. It had the leading writer for the New York Times, Doctors and advocates along with former players in the film.\n\nO&#39;connor, Anahad. \"Trying to Reduce Head Injuries, Youth Football Limits Practices.\" The New York Times. The New York Times, 13 June 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/14/sports/pop-warner-football-limits-contact-in-practices.html?_r=1>. \nThis New York Times article about Youth Football emphasizes the changes in playing techniques and rules. It also talks a lot about how the education part of concussions and prevention influences the changes and the need to change in youth football and not only in NFL. It also references Chris Nowinksi who is mentioned in a few other sources and was behind the filming of the movie Head Games, as well as doctors who are experts in brain trauma or sports medicine.\n\n\"Prevention.\" Prevention. SportsConcussions.org., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.sportsconcussions.org/ibaseline/education/prevention.html>. \nThe article on Prevention on the SportsConcussion.org site was an important source because it highlights the key components of prevention that the paper is based off of. The article reflects the same opinions of other sources like Sports Illustrated, New York Times and experts in Head Games. SportsConcussion.org mentions multiple experts within the field on Head Injuries throughout the article to support their point of view. The website was specific to my article topic so it was an important article to use. \n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284465,"object_id":"afigueroa1352103859","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Works Cited","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284442,"object_id":"afigueroa1352103886","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Anderson, Marcia K., Gail P. Parr, and Susan J Hall. Foundations of Athletic Training Prevention, Assessment, Management. Philadephia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009. Print.\n\nConcussions in Football DVD:NATA/National Academy of Neurosychology Team up on Campaign to Raise Concussion Awareness. NATA.org. NATA, 2012. Web. 22 Oct, 2012\n\nEpstein, David. \"The Damage Done.\" While Concussive Hits Dominate the Debate. Sports Illustrated., 1 Nov. 2010. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1176377/1/index.htm>. \n\n\"Head Injuries in Football.\" New York Times. N.p., 21 Oct. 2010. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/f/football/head_injuries/index.html>. \n\nJames, Steve, dir. Head Games. Prod. Bruce Sheridan, and Dir. . 2012. Film. 5 Nov 2012.\n\nLamberti, Patty. \"Preventing Brain Injuries in High School Athletes.\" Make it Better. N.p., Aug. 2010. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.makeitbetter.net/family/health-and-wellness/1770-preventing-brain-injuries-in-high-school-athletes>.\n\nMcCrory, Paul. \"Preparticipation Assessment For Head Injury.\" Clinical Journal Of Sport Medicine 14.3 (2004): 139-144. Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Oct. 2012.\n\nO&#39;connor, Anahad. \"Trying to Reduce Head Injuries, Youth Football Limits Practices.\" The New York Times. The New York Times, 13 June 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/14/sports/pop-warner-football-limits-contact-in-practices.html?_r=1>. \n\nP. Schamasch, et al. \"Summary And Agreement Statement Of The 2Nd International Conference On Concussion In Sport, Prague 2004.\" British Journal Of Sports Medicine 39.4 (2005): 196-204. Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Oct. 2012.\n\n\"Prevention.\" Prevention. SportsConcussions.org., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.sportsconcussions.org/ibaseline/education/prevention.html>.\n \nSmith, Grant. \"Alumnus Evan Breedlove Part of Football Concussion Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Alumnus Evan B - Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Alumni.\" Alumnus Evan Breedlove Part of Football Concussion Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Alumnus Evan B - Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Alumni. N.p., 2 Nov. 2010. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://alumni.rose-hulman.edu/news/51953/>. \n\nToporek, Bryan. \"Sports Rules Revised As Research Mounts On Head Injuries.\" Education Week 31.22 (2012): 8. Academic Search Complete. 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