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{"id":1343692,"type":0,"block_id":"spanakopita_1373027858","theme_id":32,"user_id":478155,"path":"LANGUAGE-ACROSS-TIME","title":"POSSIBLE ERRORS","pubtitle":"LANGUAGE ACROSS TIME","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/spanakopita_1373027858.jpg","width":550,"copyright":null,"properties":{"publishType":0,"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":1773797,"object_id":"spanakopita1373459405","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"LANGUAGE CHANGE ACROSS TIME: changes across the subsystems","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2290288,"object_id":"spanakopita_1373459507","chart_type_nr":23,"data":[[["SEMANTIC CHANGE","evolution of word usage","circlePath",""],["SEMANTIC BROADENING","process in which the specific meaning of a word becomes more general or 'broad'","starPath"]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1746190,"object_id":"spanakopita_1373027858","particle_type":"quote","picture":null,"text":"GENERONYM: ","content_type":"","title":"brand or company name that has become the generic name of the product they produce.\n","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1787360,"object_id":"spanakopita1373608510","particle_type":"quote","picture":null,"text":"GENEROCIDE:","content_type":"","title":"proper noun ----> common noun","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1773861,"object_id":"spanakopita1373460184","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"14 people were shown five familiar objects and asked to name them","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1773941,"object_id":"spanakopita_1373460879","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/spanakopita_1373460879.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1773948,"object_id":"spanakopita1373460921","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"the results: brand names vs actual item names","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2297876,"object_id":"spanakopita_1373531511","chart_type_nr":21,"data":[[["","ESKY/COOLER or ICE BOX","VELCRO/HOOK AND LOOP FASTENER","COKE/COLA","BANDAID/ADHESIVE BANDAGE","POST-IT/STICKY MEMO NOTES"],["Value","8","11","10","10","3"],["From","14","14","14","4","14"],["Title","ESKY/COOLER or ICE BOX","VELCRO/HOOK AND LOOP FASTENER","COKE/COLA","BANDAID/ADHESIVE BANDAGE","POST-IT/STICKY MEMO NOTES"],["Hover text","8 out of 14","11 out of 14","10 out of 14","10 out of 14","3 out of 14"]]],"custom":{"path":"profilePath"},"colors":["#e84f2c","#e31307","#e37900","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1773956,"object_id":"spanakopita1373460976","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Combined results: brand names vs actual item names","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2260953,"object_id":"spanakopita_1373028722","chart_type_nr":3,"data":[[[],["BRAND NAME","52"],["ACTUAL ITEM NAME","18"]]],"custom":{},"colors":["#e84f2c","#77c300","#e37900","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1787320,"object_id":"spanakopita1373607931","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Trends found","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1787323,"object_id":"spanakopita1373607965","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"\nOverall, 52 of the 70 responses were references to brand or company names instead of the actual item name.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2305320,"object_id":"spanakopita_1373607667","chart_type_nr":23,"data":[[["PHONOLOGICAL CHANGE","the evolution of sounds and sound patterns in words","circlePath",""],["","","starPath"]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1774049,"object_id":"spanakopita1373461663","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"They were further asked to say some sentences, including:","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1774058,"object_id":"spanakopita1373461702","particle_type":"quote","picture":null,"text":"'The address was not known' \n'He starred in the advertisement'","content_type":"","title":".","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1774072,"object_id":"spanakopita1373461780","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"The noun, 'address' is often pronounced in two ways: with stress on the first syllable /ædrɛs/ or the older version of /ədrɛs/. The noun 'advertisement' also has two common pronunciations: /ədvɜtɪsmənt/ (usually British) and /ædvərtaɪsmənt/ (usually American).","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1774074,"object_id":"spanakopita1373461821","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"The results: /ədrɛs/ vs /ædrɛs/ and /ædˈvɜrtɪsmənt/ vs /ædvərtaɪsmənt/ ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":2290626,"object_id":"spanakopita_1373462016","chart_type_nr":10,"data":[[["Address","Address"],["/ədrɛs/","8"],["/ædrɛs/","6"]],[["Advertisement"],["/ædˈvɜrtɪsmənt/","7"],["/ædvərtaɪsmənt/","7"]]],"custom":{"height":"250","legacyTransposeDone":true,"switchRowsColumns":true},"colors":["#ff9000","#ffd542","#e37900","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1774180,"object_id":"spanakopita1373462415","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Trends found","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1774175,"object_id":"spanakopita1373462346","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"No distinct trends were found from the data.\nThe two pronunciations of each word are evenly balanced, so no clear conclusions can be drawn.\nThose who had English as a second language (Chinese as their first) were not more likely to say a certain pronunciation than the other subjects. As a sidenote, the researcher’s mother stated that as she grew up in Hong Kong, she was taught to pronounce /ædˈvɜrtɪsmənt/, while the researcher’s father had learnt in Hong Kong to say /ædvərˈtaɪzmənt/. Therefore, learning English as a second or as a first language did not impact on the pronunciation of the two words. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":16981894,"object_id":"60082dd4-ead3-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"POSSIBLE ERRORS","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1787328,"object_id":"spanakopita1373608134","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Despite the best efforts of the researcher, some errors may occur in the data due to a range of factors, including:\n•\tThe relationship between the researcher and the participant\n•\tThe limited range of ethnicities and ages of participants\n•\tThe limited range of education levels achieved by participants\n•\tThe distraction and interferences of other subject on the participant being analysed.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1796372,"object_id":"spanakopita_1373800236","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/spanakopita_1373800236.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1787340,"object_id":"spanakopita1373608258","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"CONCLUSION","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1787341,"object_id":"spanakopita1373608262","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"The semantics of many lexemes we use are evidently broadening to the effect that certain companies and brands are embedded in our vocabulary. This may be due to our everyday subjection of advertisements and brand labels, which have been successful in gaining consumers’ attentions.\nNow, there is a diverse range of ways people pronounce certain lexemes. While this study did not find having English as a first or second language as a factor of pronunciation, it paves the way for further research.\nTo conclude, language has changed over time, shown clearly by both the use of generonyms and variations in pronounciation. \n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1796359,"object_id":"spanakopita_1373799913","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/spanakopita_1373799913.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1796382,"object_id":"spanakopita1373800502","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"JASMINE CHAN 11J ENGLISH LANGUAGE 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