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{"id":934861,"type":0,"block_id":"1801759690_1366047755","theme_id":29,"user_id":320860,"path":"Hydraulic-Fracturing-1801759690_1366047755","title":"Hydraulic Fracturing","pubtitle":"Hydraulic Fracturing","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/1801759690_1366047755.jpg","width":550,"copyright":null,"properties":{"publishType":0,"exportsettings":"{\"CHART_1435150\":[]}","transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":10905766,"object_id":"0a0b740d-e9d5-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Hydraulic Fracturing","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":919518,"object_id":"1801759690_1366047755","particle_type":"quote","picture":null,"text":"Hydraulic fracturing is the process of drilling for natural gas and oil underneath the ground. Water mixed with other components is pumped into the ground to create cracks (also referred to as fissures or fractures) to release the gas into wells that have been built for collection.\n","content_type":"","title":"(via http://energytomorrow.org/energy/hydraulic-fracturing/","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1094848,"object_id":"18017596901367374526","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":" Hydraulic fracturing technique has been a fast growing technology since its first application in 1947. By 1988, more than one million hydraulic fracturing treatments had been performed, and today this technique is one of the most important methods in enhancing oil extraction from wells (Pak). According to A. Pak, from the University of Alberta and the Journal of Canadian Petroleum, hydraulic fracturing technology has advanced significantly over the past fifty years and our ability to model the process has not changed as rapidly. Pak goes on to say, \" this technique has been so successful that in the past, designingthe treatment with a high degree of precision was not of any interest.\" But as the industry moved towards applications of very high volume/rate, and highly engineered and sophisticated hydraulic fracturing treatments, Pak claims the demand for more rigorous designs in order to optimize the procedure have become more important.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":936385,"object_id":"18017596901366168533","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/18017596901366168533.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1094388,"object_id":"18017596901367369427","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Steps of Hydraulic Fracturing: 1. Water, sand and chemicals are mixed at the surface and pumped at high pressures down the wellbore.\n\n2. The fracturing fluid flows through the perforated sections of the wellbore and into the surrounding formation, fracturing it while carrying sand into the cracks to hold them open.\n\n3. Experts continually monitor pressures and fluid during the process, and adjust operations as necessary.\n\n4. This process is typically completed in multiple sections of the wellbore, commonly referred to as stages. Typically stages are isolated using a plug to allow energy or pressure to be applied to a smaller portion of the formation to help maximize the fractures created in the target formation.\n\n5. The plugs are removed from the wellbore and the well’s pressure is reduced during the flowback process, leaving the sand in place to prop open the cracks and allow natural gas and/or oil to flow.\n\n6. Produced water, collected during the flowback process and throughout the life of the well, is properly disposed of or treated and re-used in the next hydraulic fracturing operation.\n (Graphic and information via http://energytomorrow.org/energy/hydraulic-fracturing/ \"Hydraulic Fracturing;Energy Tomorrow\")\n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":936469,"object_id":"18017596901366169479","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"What fracking fluid is made of:","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":936464,"object_id":"18017596901366169413","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/18017596901366169413.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1079270,"object_id":"18017596901367274324","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"The fluid injected into the rock is typically a mixture of water, proppants, and chemical additives. Additionally, gels, foams, and compressed gases, including nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air can be injected. Typically, of the fracturing fluid 90% is water and 9.5% is sand with the chemical additives accounting to about 0.5% (figure via dagblog. com/AGuidetoNaturalGasFracking)","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":936167,"object_id":"18017596901366166341","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/18017596901366166341.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1094468,"object_id":"18017596901367370259","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"According to Zeta Angelich, a writer from statesman.org, a Texas based newspaper, suggests that \"tracking\" has many benefits such as how the industry is committed to protecting the environment. Furthermore, according to the Energy From Shale website, hydraulic fracturing does not introduce new or unique environmental risks to exploration and production operations. Examples include: Fracking requires 2 to 4 million gallons of water. Drilling companies work with local water planning agencies to ensure local water needs are not disrupted, and often recycle water for use in other wells. Also, Oil and natural gas development companies work with local communities to reduce noise, traffic and other environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing. Research shows that properly designed and constructed oil and natural gas wells present low environmental risk to our groundwater. Lastly, with proper safeguards in place, fracking poses low risk to air quality from the running of engines and compressors to develop and operate natural oil and gas wells. (Above figure via statesman.org)\n\n\n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":936210,"object_id":"18017596901366166764","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/18017596901366166764.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":936201,"object_id":"18017596901366166602","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Critics contend that the groundwater is being polluted by hydraulic fracturing. They say that hundreds of different toxic chemicals used in fracturing fluids are being injected into the groundwater. But the evidence of harmful pollution remains limited. In fact, chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing are also used for everyday purposes such as in swimming pools or in antibacterial cleaner used as a disinfectant.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1094736,"object_id":"18017596901367373166","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"In addition to the various concerns about fracking, there have also been some controversial claims about the process. One such claim, made by the Green Party of Pennsylvania states that, \"hydraulic fracturing squanders our precious water resources.\" There is no question that hydraulic fracturing uses a lot of water. According to Popular Mechanics, it can takeupto 7 million gallons to frack a single well, and at least 30 percent of that water is lost forever, after being trapped deep in the shale. Hydrogeologist David Yoxtheimer of Penn State's Marcellus Center for Outreach and Research says that of the 9.5 billion gallons of water used daily in Pennsylvania, natural gas development consumes 1.9 million gallons a day (mgd); livestock use 62 mgd; mining, 96 mgd; and industry, 770 mgd.\n\n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":936262,"object_id":"18017596901366167276","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/18017596901366167276.gif"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1094783,"object_id":"18017596901367373875","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"There are a plethora of drilling wells around the nation, mostly of which are found in the Midwestern,Eastern part of the United States. In the US, some states have introduced legislation that limits the ability of municipalities to use zoning to protect citizens from exposure to pollutants from hydraulic fracturing by protecting residential areas (EPA). In the US, some states have introduced legislation that limits the ability of municipalities to use zoning to protect citizens from exposure to pollutants from hydraulic fracturing by protecting residential areas. According to the EPA, in Pennsylvania, the new Marcellus Shale Law requires all municipalities to allow Marcellus Shale well drilling in all zoning districts, including residential, and allow water and wastewater pits in all zoning districts, including residential. In May 2012 the California Senate defeated a bill, introduced by state Sen. Fran Pavley , requiring drillers to notify local property owners and water authorities in advance that hydraulic fracturing was going to occur, and requiring the testing of groundwater before and after the hydraulic fracturing to determine whether contamination had occurred. The New York State assembly voted 93 to 43, in November 2010, to place a moratorium or freeze on hydraulic fracturing to give the state more time to undertake safety and environmental concerns. (Above figure and information via EPA).","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":936329,"object_id":"18017596901366167859","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/18017596901366167859.jpg"},{"type":"chart","chart_id":1435150,"object_id":"1801759690_1366048158","chart_type_nr":23,"data":[[[" 9.4 trillion cubic feet","the number Industrial demand is expected to increase by 2020","profilePath",""],["42% jump","compared to the 6.6 trillion cubic feet the sector used in 2010.","upPath"],["","",""]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1094515,"object_id":"18017596901367370910","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Within the next two decades, shale gas is expected to make up 45% of total production. Experts estimate that domestic shale plays hold an additional 24 billion barrels of recoverable oil and natural gas. Fracking is the key to unlocking these resources. (Figure and statistics via EIA) The US Energy Information Administration projects a rise in US oil production due to hydraulically fractured wells in tight oil formations such as the Bakken Formation and Eagle Ford Formation.\n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null}],"theme":{"createdAt":"2016-04-22T04:54:07.000Z","updatedAt":"2016-12-28T10:33:06.000Z","logoImages":[""],"charts":{"wordcloud":{"labels":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"Arial"}},"treemap":{"labels":{"value":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"},"name":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"}}},"table":{"cellBackground":"#ffffff","headerBackground":"#eeeeee","cellColor":"#444444","headerColor":"#444444","shapeFill":"307d99"}},"color":{"bg":"#ffffff","text":"#000000","chart":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#767676"},"element":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#000000"}},"colorPresets":[],"localFonts":[],"font":{"common":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans 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