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{"id":972401,"type":0,"block_id":"calcal54_1366657340","theme_id":30,"user_id":333764,"path":"Hosni-Mubarak-372","title":"Hosni Mubarak","pubtitle":"Hosni Mubarak","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/calcal54_1366657340.jpg","width":550,"copyright":null,"properties":{"publishType":0,"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":13256038,"object_id":"bd3c6380-ea36-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Hosni Mubarak","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":987006,"object_id":"calcal541366661155","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Callum & Damian","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":986867,"object_id":"calcal54_1366660471","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/calcal54_1366660471.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":986283,"object_id":"calcal54_1366657340","particle_type":"quote","picture":null,"text":"The true victory is the victory for democracy and pluralism.\n\n ","content_type":"","title":"Hosni mubarak","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":986802,"object_id":"calcal541366660050","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Rise to Power","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":986525,"object_id":"calcal541366658774","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Mubarak became Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defense in 1972. He was given much credit for helping lead Egypt through the war against Israel in 1973. From that point onwards Mubarak found himself appointed as the Vice President of Egypt in April 1975. He became the right hand man of President Sadat. In this role Mubarak dealt with government conflicts such as the future disengagement of forces agreement with Israel. \nHe took power and instated the Emergency rule as the new President when Sadat was assassinated by Islamist officers at a military parade. The President was the victim of an attack by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli. During the assassination, Mubarak was right beside Sadat and managed to escape alive, but was said to have been injured. Conspiracists to this day wonder if Mubarak was at the heart of the assassination, with nothing yet proved.\n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":986810,"object_id":"calcal541366660082","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Maintaining Power","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":986323,"object_id":"calcal541366657659","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Mubarak used terror to hold onto his role for over 30 years. He looked to use the chaos of food and fuel shortages to weaken revolutions. People would not accept anything else than gaining civil liberties and government transparency. Amongst the heated demands by liberalists, he claimed to hold onto power for the sake of maintaining security and order. \n\nRioters against Mubarak were peaceful yet he instilled violence into riots by sending disguised police as looters and rioters to go into crowds and beat down citizens. Constantly throughout his rule Mubarak used tactics of silencing his critics with criminal charges such as defamation.\n\nMubarak uniquely sided as a Western ally which gave reason as to why the U.S secretly would have liked him to stay in power. The fact he stood his ground to fight off strong opposition in Egypt.\n\nHosni Mubarak ruled as a quasi-military leader when he took power. When he came into power he put the state into an “Emergency Law” which gave him powers to take away basic freedoms. His reasons given for these measures were backed up by the need to protect the state from Islamist terrorism. These terrorists mostly targeted Egypt’s tourist sectors and caused problems many times during his reign. \n\nAlthough forgery and vote-rigging was common before Mubarak came into power, citizens were surprised at the extent of the forgery in his final parliamentary election. Members of the NDP were asked to compete for the same seat, thus eliminating members of the opposition. The Muslim Brotherhood didn’t even win a single seat in the People’s Assembly when it was the biggest opposition group at the time. Al-Wafd, Egypt’s other biggest opposition party withdrew from the race/vote as protest to the fraud and rigging of votes taking place. \n\nMubarak expanded the Egyptian State Security Investigations Service and Central Security Forces (anti-riot and containment forces). \n\nThe amount of corruption under Mubarak continued. In 2010, Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index report assessed Egypt with a CPI score of 3.1, based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts.\n\nEmergency Law Rule: Police powers are extended. Censorship legalized the constitutional rights stripped by the government. Street demonstrations, non-approved political organizations, and unregistered financial donations were banned. Gives the government the right to determine length of sentences in any circumstance without trial. Mubarak imprisoned any influential figures from the Muslim Brotherhood. \n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":1503876,"object_id":"calcal54_1366660517","chart_type_nr":21,"data":[[["","Votes for Mubarik","votes against"],["Value","94","6"],["From","100","100"],["Title","Lowest Referendum Results in the Mubarak Era","Title B"],["Hover text","94%","5 from 10"]]],"custom":{},"colors":["#8c2c0e"],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":986796,"object_id":"calcal541366660027","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Fall from Power","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":986460,"object_id":"calcal541366658406","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"\nUpon 2011, Egyptian citizens saw the possibility of Mubarak’s seventh term approaching, or the even worse possibility of his power being passed down to his son Gamal. \n\nPopular uprising began January 25, 2011. Millions of protesters from various economic and religious backgrounds banded together in hopes of overthrowing Mubarak. Interactions between security forces and the protesters were violent and resulted in at least 846 people killed and 6000 injured. Protesters burned over 90 police stations to the ground. The main issues that Egyptian protesters focused on were police brutality, state of emergency laws, lack of free elections, freedom of speech, corruption, high unemployment, food price inflation, and low wages. \n\nThe uprising caused Cairo to become “a war zone”, there were many violent interactions in the city of Suez as well. The police loyal to Mubarak, the Central Security Forces, were replaced by restrained military troops. \n\nMubarak disbanded his government and appointed Omar Suleiman, former head of Egyptian General Intelligence Directorate, as vice president to try to suppress the conflict. He then asked Ahmed Shafik, aviation minister and former chief of the Egyptian Air Force, to form a new government. All major opposition groups supported Mohamed ElBaradei as he became a strong force of the opposition. Pressure on Mubarak built, and he responded by announcing that he had not intended to run for re-election in September. \n\nMubarak’s resignation from president was announced by Vice President Omar Suleiman on February 11, 2011. Power was turned over to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. The military junta announced the suspension of the constitution on February 13, both houses of parliament were to be disbanded and the military would control/rule for six months until another election could be held. The previous Cabinet, led by Ahmed Shafik, Prime Minister, would act as a caretaker government until a new one was formed. There were protests planned to make Shafik step down on March 4, so he resigned March 3 and was replaced by Essam Sharaf who was a former transport minister. \n\nMay 24 – Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder targeting peaceful protesters. He could face the death penalty if proven guilty. \n\nJune 2, 2012 – Mubarak was found guilty and of involvement in the murders and was sentenced to life in prison. This was later overturned on appeal \n\nJune 24 – Mohammed Morsi had won the presidential election but was inaugurated on June 30 as the 5th president.\n\nBasically, the overall demands were the \n\n* end of Mubarak’s rule \n\n* end of emergency law \n\n* freedom \n\n* justice \n\n* responsive government that isn’t led by the military \n\n* for citizens to have a say in managing Egypt’s resources \n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":986815,"object_id":"calcal541366660110","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Relation to Liberalism","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":986473,"object_id":"calcal541366658478","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"During Mubarak’s rule he stripped most fundamental rights of the Egyptian people. The government and state police were able to invade the nation’s privacy and made for unfair imprisonment with the absence of fair trials. Freedom of speech was never upheld, many were imprisoned for speaking poorly of Mubarak. In the 2012 constitution passed once Mohamed Morsi came into office there is highly illiberal social practices. The constitution looked to expand presidential powers and protection of military. It takes away trials from citizens in military courts. In this constitution privacy is ideally given back to the people, warrants are needed to invade privacy and arrests cannot be made without the order from a judge. When Mubarak stepped down most thought Egypt would be able to become a more free society. Yet this does not seem possible with Morsi using \"Mubarak\" type tactics to control Egypt.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null}],"theme":{"createdAt":"2016-04-22T04:54:07.000Z","updatedAt":"2016-12-28T10:33:20.000Z","logoImages":[""],"charts":{"wordcloud":{"labels":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"Arial"}},"treemap":{"labels":{"value":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"},"name":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"}}},"table":{"cellBackground":"#efede6","headerBackground":"#d7d5cf","cellColor":"#534741","headerColor":"#534741","shapeFill":"#232323"}},"color":{"bg":"#efede6","text":"#000000","chart":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#534741"},"element":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#000000"}},"colorPresets":[],"localFonts":[],"font":{"common":{"textAlign":"initial","fontSize":"16","fontStyle":"normal","fontWeight":"400","fontFamily":"PT Sans 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