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{"id":1043949,"type":0,"block_id":"jackandmax_1367544909","theme_id":30,"user_id":359311,"path":"Gustation-and-Olfaction-by-Jack-and-Max","title":"Gustation and Olfaction","pubtitle":"Gustation and Olfaction by Jack and Max","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/jackandmax_1367544909.jpg","width":550,"copyright":null,"properties":{"publishType":0,"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":14877544,"object_id":"85554f76-ea79-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Gustation and Olfaction","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1120441,"object_id":"jackandmax1367545659","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Chemorecption","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1120399,"object_id":"jackandmax1367545094","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"The process of chemoreception in the body involves sensory receptors (taste buds and the olfactory bulb) that recieve chemical signals and turn them into action potentials. These action potentials are then \"sensed\" by the body. Both smell and taste are considered chemical senses because they involve chemoreception. With taste (gustation), taste buds are stimulated by solutes (chemicals) in water, while in smell (olfaction), olfactory receptors are stimulated by solutes in the air.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1120712,"object_id":"jackandmax1367549436","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Olfaction","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1128786,"object_id":"jackandmax1367605360","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Olfaction, otherwise known as smell, occurs when odorant molecules bind to specific sites on the olfactory receptors. These receptors come together at the glomerulus, and are used to discern the presence of smell. Signals from the glomerulus are then transmitted to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb is in the brain, located above the nasal cavity and below the frontal lobe. Olfaction is a form of chemoreception. In humans, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons which are located in the olfactory epithelium. These epithelium are made up of six different types of cells, \nand is located on the roof of the nasal cavity (approximately 7 cm above and behind the nostrils). \n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1129161,"object_id":"jackandmax_1367607272","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/jackandmax_1367607272.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1129167,"object_id":"jackandmax1367607310","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"When molecules of odorants enter the nose, they pass through the superior nasal concha and dissolve in the mucus lining that covers the top portion of the cavity. They are then detected by olfactory receptors on the olfactory sensory neurons. Humans have about 1,000 different smell receptors but we can identify about 10,000 odors.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1120456,"object_id":"jackandmax1367545788","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Gustation","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1120497,"object_id":"jackandmax1367546272","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Gustation, otherwise known as taste, takes place when taste buds on the tongue come into contact with chemicals that trigger chemoreception. The five types of tastes that humans can sense are bitterm sour, sweet, salty, and umami (savory). different areas of the tongue detect different tastes (as shown in the picture below). After taste buds have been stimulated by chemicals, the action potential is sent through the gustatory pathway to the brain where it is processed and interpreted in the insular cortex and the post central gyrus.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1120496,"object_id":"jackandmax_1367546251","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/jackandmax_1367546251.gif"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1120545,"object_id":"jackandmax1367547079","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Taste buds are located in clusters on small bumps on the tongue called papillae. While there are fewer than 100 papillae on the tongue, there are can be up to 8,000 taste buds. The four types of papillae are fungiform, foliate, circumvallate, and filiform. As is shown in the picture above, different types of papillae are located in different areas of the tongue. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1120665,"object_id":"jackandmax_1367548586","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/jackandmax_1367548586.gif"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1120672,"object_id":"jackandmax1367548670","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Each taste bud is embedded in the lingual epithelium of the various papillae. A taste pore is allows the taste bud to be exposed to chemicals. Each taste bud consists of sustentacular, gustatory, intermediate, and basal cells (seen in the picture above). Each cell besides the basal cell have microvili that protrude through the taste pore and are stimulated by chemicals. With a combination of chemicals received by both taste buds and olfactory receptors, humans are able to experience taste.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null}],"theme":{"createdAt":"2016-04-22T04:54:07.000Z","updatedAt":"2016-12-28T10:33:20.000Z","logoImages":[""],"charts":{"wordcloud":{"labels":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"Arial"}},"treemap":{"labels":{"value":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"},"name":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"}}},"table":{"cellBackground":"#efede6","headerBackground":"#d7d5cf","cellColor":"#534741","headerColor":"#534741","shapeFill":"#232323"}},"color":{"bg":"#efede6","text":"#000000","chart":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#534741"},"element":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#000000"}},"colorPresets":[],"localFonts":[],"font":{"common":{"textAlign":"initial","fontSize":"16","fontStyle":"normal","fontWeight":"400","fontFamily":"PT Sans 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