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{"id":746890,"type":0,"block_id":"calcio1427_1363125129","theme_id":29,"user_id":257471,"path":"Gene-Expression-2","title":"Gene Expression","pubtitle":"Gene Expression","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/calcio1427_1363125129.jpg","width":550,"copyright":"","properties":{"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":13256056,"object_id":"bd546806-ea36-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Gene Expression","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":720713,"object_id":"calcio14271363125412","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"What is it?","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":720142,"object_id":"calcio14271363125505","particle_type":"quote","picture":null,"text":"\"the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.\"","content_type":"","title":"Wikipedia","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":720597,"object_id":"calcio14271363125592","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Northern blotting","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":720800,"object_id":"calcio14271363126080","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Northern blotting is a technique used to study RNA samples. First, RNA is separated by size through gel electrophoresis. The RNA is then transfered to a sheet of special blotting paper called nitrocellulose. A hybridization probe is then added to the nitrocellulose paper, which bonds with its complementary RNA segment, tagging it radioactively so it can be seen in on x-ray film. This process can allow researchers to determine the molecular weight of an mRNA and measure the relative amount of the mRNA present in a sample.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":721014,"object_id":"calcio14271363127704","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/calcio14271363127704.gif"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":720954,"object_id":"calcio14271363127263","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Microarrays","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":720861,"object_id":"calcio14271363126579","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/calcio14271363126579.gif"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":720626,"object_id":"calcio14271363126391","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Microarrays allow scientists to detect how active cellular genes are at a specific time. They work by collecting the mRNA molecules in the cell and labeling them by using a reverse transcriptase enzyme that generates a complementary cDNA to the mRNA. During that process fluorescent nucleotides are attached to the cDNA. Then the labeled cDNAs are placed on a DNA microarray slide. The cDNAs that represent mRNAs found in that cell will bind to their complementary DNA fragments, marking them by their florescent tag. The more mRNAs of a particular genetic sequence are produced, the more cDNAs will attach, making florescence an indicator of how active the gene is in that cell. If there is no florescence, no mRNAs were produced from that sequence, meaning the gene was turned off. If it is very florescent, many mRNAs were produced, meaning it was very active. The picture above describes a technique used to determine if specific genes were more active in cancer cells, by tagging the tumor cDNAs with red florescent dye and the normal cDNAs with green florescent dye. By tagging them differently, it reveals whether there was an equal amount of mRNAs produced in both cells (which would be yellow), more mRNAs produced in the cancerous cell (red), or more mRNAs produced in the normal cell (green). Techniques such as this have pointed researchers towards specific genes that may have been turned on or off by diseases and their effects.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":720990,"object_id":"calcio14271363127524","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"References","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":720993,"object_id":"calcio14271363127536","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"http://www.genome.gov/10000533","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":720997,"object_id":"calcio14271363127573","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_microarray","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":721002,"object_id":"calcio14271363127600","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybridization_probe","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":721005,"object_id":"calcio14271363127616","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_blot","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":721037,"object_id":"calcio14271363128130","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"http://www.bio.davidson.edu/courses/genomics/method/northernblot.html","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null}],"theme":{"createdAt":"2016-04-22T04:54:07.000Z","updatedAt":"2016-12-28T10:33:06.000Z","logoImages":[""],"charts":{"wordcloud":{"labels":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"Arial"}},"treemap":{"labels":{"value":{"fontFamily":"PT 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