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{"id":845441,"type":0,"block_id":"aelacy_1364698193","theme_id":31,"user_id":201134,"path":"Educating-Evangelists--American-Missionaries-in-Asia-Minor","title":"","pubtitle":"Educating Evangelists: American Missionaries in Asia Minor","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/aelacy_1364698193.jpg","width":700,"copyright":null,"properties":{"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":12463594,"object_id":"c01693ff-ea15-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":181124,"object_id":"aelacy1364698486","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Introduction","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":181153,"object_id":"aelacy1364698500","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was a Protestant missionary group founded in 1812 and was the first foreign missionary organization established in the Untied States to extend their mission across the globe. Missionary efforts stressed the importance of literacy and education overseas as missionaries established schools and printing presses in hopes of attracting religious converts among the Muslim population. The ABCFM, however, ended up focusing their attention on converting non-Protestant Christian groups such as the Armenians and Greeks in the Ottoman Empire when it became apparent that Muslims were much more difficult to convert. The focus of my research is examine the impact of missionary work through the context of education. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":181520,"object_id":"aelacy1364698705","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Printing Presses","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":181218,"object_id":"aelacy1364698720","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"In 1823, the missionaries established a printing press in Malta, which quickly grew to be the center of publication for the ABCFM. Many Missionaries worked on complicated translation tasks in order to make printed materials available in the native languages of Ottoman inhabitants. The following table lists a sampling of the publications produced in Malta sorted by language and title. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":181079,"object_id":"aelacy1364698869","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/aelacy1364698869.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":181075,"object_id":"aelacy1364698882","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Literacy Rates","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":181066,"object_id":"aelacy1364698904","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Literacy was crucial to the ABCFM&#39;s mission to Asia Minor in the nineteenth century. At the time of missionary arrival in the Ottoman Empire, there was no formal system of standardized education and literacy rates were considerably lower than in Western Europe. For instance, the estimated literacy rate in the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the nineteenth century was between 2 and 3 percent. At the same time, the estimated literacy rate in Western Europe ranged between 10 and 30 percent. Thus, literacy became a prerequisite for religious conversion, as missionaries established schools for both boys and girls. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":181035,"object_id":"aelacy1364699062","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Missionary Schools ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":181027,"object_id":"aelacy1364699086","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"ABCFM missionaries established schools soon after their arrival in Constantinople in the 1830s. Missionary schools had an abundance of eager students, as many non Protestant Christian families enrolled their children. By 1861, there were at least 45 missionary schools in the Ottoman capital alone. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180997,"object_id":"aelacy1364699192","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Highly educated missionary women headed the ABCFM&#39;s educational effort. Ultimately, the efforts of the ABCFM led to teh establishment of a widespread school system in the Ottoman Empire. Their efforts were most significant in the field of female education, as ABCFM missionary women actively promoted female literacy and education. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180966,"object_id":"aelacy1364699304","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Eliza Frichter, the daughter of Henry J. Frichter and Anna Sprague Rider, was born on February 2, 1831 in Millport Chumung County, New York. Frichter would later become a prominent missionary in the ABCFM&#39;s mission to Central Turkey, part of the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century. Her correspondence tracks the progress of missionary schools, specifically a school for girls in the Turkish village of Marsovan, on the Black Sea. Working as a teacher, Frichter spent more than twenty-five years educating young girls, mostly from Greek and Armenian communities. The accounts of missionary women like Frichter reveal a great deal about the impact of missionary schools, the relationships between missionaries and the indigenous Ottoman population, and about the state of education in the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180877,"object_id":"aelacy1364699568","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Methodology","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180873,"object_id":"aelacy1364699584","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"This project builds on my previous research conducted on the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions and their work in Asia Minor. Last summer, I participated in the Summer Intensive Research Experience and began researching the ABCFM&#39;s work in this region, specifically focusing on the interactions between American missionaries and Ottoman inhabitants. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180794,"object_id":"aelacy1364699706","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Literature Cited","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180879,"object_id":"aelacy1364699731","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Archival Sources:","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180763,"object_id":"aelacy1364699754","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Houghton Library of Harvard University-Houghton Library is one of the main special collections libraries at Harvard and houses the original papers of the ABCFM. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180740,"object_id":"aelacy1364699820","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"The Congregational Library of Boston was founded in 1853 and contains over 225,000 items pertaining to the Congregational Church&#39;s history. Within this collection are the papers of the ABCFM members as well as the original copies of The Missionary Herald, the ABCFM&#39;s regularly published newsletter. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180690,"object_id":"aelacy1364699938","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Secondary Sources:","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180665,"object_id":"aelacy1364699957","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Augustinos, Gerasimos. The Greeks of Asia Minor: Confession, Community, and Ethnicity in the Nineteenth Century. Kent State University Press, 1992. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":172026,"object_id":"aelacy1364700021","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Hubers, John. \"Making Friends with Locusts: Early ABCFM Missionary Perceptions of Muslims and Islam, 1818-50.\" International Bulletin of Missionary Research. Vol. 17, No. 2 (April 1981): 153-166. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180625,"object_id":"aelacy1364700118","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Kennedy, Judd W. American Missionaries in Turkey and Northern Syria and the Development of Central Turkey and Aleppo Colleges, 1847-1967. William and Mary, 2008. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180603,"object_id":"aelacy1364700189","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Kling, David. \"The New Divinity and the Origins of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.\" American Society of Church History, No. 4 (December 2003): 792-811. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180569,"object_id":"aelacy1364700267","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Makdisi, Usama. \"Reclaiming the Land of the Bible: Missionaries, Secularism, and Evangelical Modernity.\" The American Historical Review, Vol. 102 (June 1997): 680-692. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180473,"object_id":"aelacy1364700348","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Quatert, Donald. The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922: New Approaches to European History. Cambridge University Press, 2000. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180466,"object_id":"aelacy1364700394","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Walton, Andrea. Women and Philanthropy in Education. Indiana University Press, 2004. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180475,"object_id":"aelacy1364700451","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Conclusion","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":180483,"object_id":"aelacy1364700467","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Although the ABCFM&#39;s mission was intended to gain religious converts, one of their greatest legacies on the Near East was their establishment of schools for both boys and girls. Prior to the missionary arrival, the Ottoman Empire lacked a system of standardized education and literacy rates were considerably lower than in Western Europe. Missionaries established schools and helped to spread literacy to the Ottoman Empire. Perhaps, the most significant impact of their work was their widespread introduction of female education, as missionaries like Eliza Frichter promoted female education and literacy in Asia Minor. 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