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{"id":1142455,"type":0,"block_id":"carlarf_1369140317","theme_id":29,"user_id":395657,"path":"Climate-Models-33","title":"Climate Models","pubtitle":"Climate Models","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/carlarf_1369140317.jpg","width":550,"copyright":null,"properties":{"publishType":0,"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":13279378,"object_id":"b418a9d6-ea37-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Climate Models","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339601,"object_id":"carlarf_1369164458","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/carlarf_1369164458.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1333764,"object_id":"carlarf1369140385","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"What is the goal?","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339274,"object_id":"carlarf1369162603","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"To predict how the climate of earth will change in a long term future. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339080,"object_id":"carlarf1369161929","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"What is the importance? ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339267,"object_id":"carlarf1369162559","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"For example, they serve as a way of modeling Global Warming by seeing the temperatures before and how much the earth has heated up since then. Furthermore, they are useful to model how different human activity changes that. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339259,"object_id":"carlarf1369162534","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Variables","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339305,"object_id":"carlarf1369162747","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Atmosphere","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339316,"object_id":"carlarf1369162789","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"air temperature, moisture and precipitation levels, and storms.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339453,"object_id":"carlarf_1369163695","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/carlarf_1369163695.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339322,"object_id":"carlarf1369162829","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Oceans","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339367,"object_id":"carlarf1369163124","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"measurements such as ocean temperature, salinity levels, and circulation patterns.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339483,"object_id":"carlarf_1369163891","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/carlarf_1369163891.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339323,"object_id":"carlarf1369162838","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Terrestrial Processes","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339369,"object_id":"carlarf1369163148","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"carbon absorption, forests, and storage of soil moisture.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339575,"object_id":"carlarf_1369164365","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/carlarf_1369164365.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339327,"object_id":"carlarf1369162860","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Cyrosphere ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339378,"object_id":"carlarf1369163197","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"both sea ice and glaciers on land.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339534,"object_id":"carlarf_1369164193","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/carlarf_1369164193.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339868,"object_id":"carlarf1369165081","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Advantages","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339905,"object_id":"carlarf1369165159","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"It is a really good way of predicting the progress of global warming. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339875,"object_id":"carlarf1369165097","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Disadvantages","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1339912,"object_id":"carlarf1369165174","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"When it comes to modeling hurricanes, for example, there are dynamical models that just cover just a part of the world. Unless the hurricane start inside the domain of the model, these models are too simplified. Hurricanes that move from outside the model domain into the model are not very realistic. It is easy to simplify reality when one has so many ecological and mechanical changes and variables. For example, there is aerosol emissions, CO2 emissions, the grids of the map, the ocean emissions... ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1340019,"object_id":"carlarf1369165507","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Furthermore, there is not enough information about what the\natmosphere is doing right now, particularly over ocean. When the model starts, it has an incorrect picture of the initial state of the atmosphere, so it will\nalways generate a forecast that is imperfect. This is an initialization problem. Moreover, since each 3D grid represents 40km, processes much smaller\nthan that, such as thunderstorms, are not handled well; and must be parameterized. Hence, fudge factors are responsible for giving the right forecast\nmost of the time, but not always. This is a resolution problem. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1340026,"object_id":"carlarf1369165537","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Life or death situation? ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1340044,"object_id":"carlarf1369165582","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"when it comes to big and long term climate models, it is not quite an opption of money saving or life or death, at least not immediatly. Climate models, thus, probably came from the need to prove\nglobal warming, which, to an extent is a matter of life-or-death and money saving (think of farms and factories). However when compared with car crash and flight modeling, this type of modeling does not have such a direct relation.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null}],"theme":{"createdAt":"2016-04-22T04:54:07.000Z","updatedAt":"2016-12-28T10:33:06.000Z","logoImages":[""],"charts":{"wordcloud":{"labels":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"Arial"}},"treemap":{"labels":{"value":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"},"name":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"}}},"table":{"cellBackground":"#ffffff","headerBackground":"#eeeeee","cellColor":"#444444","headerColor":"#444444","shapeFill":"307d99"}},"color":{"bg":"#ffffff","text":"#000000","chart":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#767676"},"element":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#000000"}},"colorPresets":[],"localFonts":[],"font":{"common":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans 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