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{"id":850110,"type":0,"block_id":"vincent_uta_1364781671","theme_id":21,"user_id":279739,"path":"Access-to-Power-4","title":"Access to Power!","pubtitle":"Access to Power!","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/vincent_uta_1364781671.jpg","width":700,"copyright":"Copyright by Vincent Nguyen 2013","properties":{"publishType":0,"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":852999,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365476580","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/vincent_uta1365476580.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":17391562,"object_id":"3b41461d-eae4-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Access to Power!","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":162739,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364781715","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":". . . ATP UTILIZATION DURING stress response","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":161400,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364785474","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"INTRODUCTION","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":165070,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364781821","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Many biological processes that occur in most forms of life depend on ATP to carry out functional cellular activities. ATP (synthesized by the mitochondria through cellular respiration) is much like the gasoline that we use to fuel automobiles which allow us to drive to our desired destinations and complete our planned business. ATP powers chemical work (such as the build-up or break down of macromolecules), mechanical work (such as muscle contraction), and transport work (moving substances across membranes). No ATP is like having a flashlight or a remote control that lacks a battery. With regards to humans, the absence or small amount of ATP will prevent us from surviving since there is not a sufficient source of energy.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":161361,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364785306","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"WHERE DOES THIS ENERGY COME FROM?","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":161341,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364785423","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"The source of ATP is \"usually\" credited to glucose molecules. A series of enzymatic steps in the process of cellular respiration will end up with a production of roughly 38 ATP molecules. It is the bond between the the terminal phosphate group and ADP (together is &#39;ATP; for Adenosine Triphosphate) that provides energy for cellular work...once the covalent bond is broken. Here&#39;s the general picture...","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":161385,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364785242","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"FIGURE 1 = Cellular Respiration","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":851684,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365465281","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/vincent_uta1365465281.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":843582,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365418723","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"FIGURE 2 = Structure of ATP","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":851687,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365465292","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/vincent_uta1365465292.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":161107,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364786796","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME...","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":161098,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364786830","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"We&#39;ve all encountered a dangerous situation at least once in our lives, be it a car acccident, running away from a tornado, or maybe being chased by a bear... What&#39;s the reaction? You know it - increased heart rate, sweat production, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and the like. In these situations as described by the characteristic symptoms, we often go through a first stage in what is known as the \"alarm phase\" of the General Adaptation Syndrome (stress response due to danger stimuli). The second stage, or \"resistance phase\" involves the return to homeostatic restoration. If homeostasis is not achieved, you will eventually die from exhaustion. Exhaustion from what? This is where the connection of glucose and ATP come into play. When you are in danger, the epinephrine hormone released by the adrenal cortex will bind to B-adrenergic receptors of liver cells and stimulate glycogenesis from cellular storage to make a ATP for the heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. This will allow a \"fight or flight for your life\" ability. If everything is okay, cortisol hormone helps to restore the body to its normal function through gluconeogenesis. If glucose is repeatedly depleted for energy production, you will only have as much left to sustain yourself from the danger. The question of interest is: About how much ATP molecules are utilized during each phase of GAS?","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":160988,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364788749","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"THE ESSENCE OF THIS PROJECT...","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":163158,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364788876","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Understanding the background information, we are going to follow a story of a poor student named Vincent who got chased by his professor, and perform a crude calculation of ATP molecules produced/consumed at each of the three stages of GAS... we&#39;ll mainly focus our consideration on three specific conditions: a situation where Vincent did not eat and did not rest; a situation where Vincent ate but did not rest; and a situation where Vincent ate and rest. But first , let&#39;s keep some important info in mind...","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":748360,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364795588","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"FIGURE 3. These rates for glucose and ATP loss will be used to calculate ATP utilization in the three-case scenarios. We&#39;ll consider that both rates are kept constant throughout the chase for simplicity (Assuming that Vincent is running at a constant speed). In reality, such rate may fluctuate from time to time under different conditions.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":844016,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365422440","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/vincent_uta1365422440.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":851992,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365467032","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Oh... and one more thing to assume for this story.... Dr. Wilk is a wonderwoman with endless power. She can run around the world straight ahead without stopping for a breath. Yikes! ...","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":160662,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364789324","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"WHERE&#39;S MY TEA-LITES!","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":160901,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364790135","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"It is the usual Monday morning in Dr. Wilk’s class, and Vincent’s tummy could not stop begging for food. Vincent was in a rush to arrive at school by 9 a.m. that he forgot to eat some breakfast. “Come on! You can hold it for 5 more minutes! Then I dig into a good lunch at the UC. Mmmm…,” he thinks to himself. Just then, Dr. Wilk was having some trouble locating her tea-lites for her sodium-potassium channel analogy. She angrily asks the class to find out which imbecile stole her tea-lites, and a naughty student in the auditorium points at Vincent. Without a thought of mercy, she glares at Vincent and slowly approaches him. That stimulus turns on his \"fear\" mode and he begins to \"flight\" out of his chair scared to death. Dr. Wilk then chases after him shouting: \"I&#39;m coming for your shoes!!!\"..... \nSince Vincent did not eat this morning, let&#39;s pretend that he starts off running with only a total of 10 grams of glucose. This is equivalent to 3.3E22 molecules.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":843954,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365421829","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"FIGURE 4","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":842515,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365409249","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/vincent_uta1365409249.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":844274,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365423990","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"FIGURE 5. We can then use the start number of glucose molecules and convert this to ATP molecules. This value will then be added to the raw number of ATP molecules to get a grand total = 1.3E24 molecules (without food!)","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":844265,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365423940","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/vincent_uta1365423940.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":844350,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365424470","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"What if Vincent ate a doughnut before he ran? Let&#39;s take a look at the extra number of ATP molecules that could be added.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":847773,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365439796","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"FIGURE 6","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":847848,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365440215","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/vincent_uta1365440215.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":847863,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365440302","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Take 4.4E24 molecules of ATP and divide by 1.3E24 molecules of ATP. It seems that by eating a doughnut, Vincent would increase his ATP supply by almost over 3 times as much rather than not eating anything!!","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":159423,"object_id":"vincent_uta1364795405","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":847989,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365440906","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Now, lets consider 3 different scenarios and apply them to this graph, which shows the depletion of Vincent&#39;s ATP molecules for energy to sustain the chase in a given time of 20 minutes. Just a reminder, we assume that he is running at a constant rate and that the molecules of ATP present over time is being depleted at a constant rate as well. (lose 2,6E23 molecules ATP per minute)","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":851741,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365465777","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"FIGURE 7","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":852312,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365471135","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/vincent_uta1365471135.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":847995,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365440927","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"SITUATION 1 - Vincent did not eat before running and did not stop to rest...","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":851743,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365465783","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"FIGURE 8","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":1367627,"object_id":"vincent_uta_1365465433","chart_type_nr":5,"data":[[["title"],["MIN","start",-500],["MAX","finish","500"],["Value","25",-100],["Label","Vincent only got through 1/4 of the chase without any breaks"]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":848054,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365441191","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"We know that Vincent initially had no food to provide him an energy boost. If he ran with the 1.3E24 ATP molecules that was already present before the chase, Vincent would only last until he reaches 5 minutes. Any time after that, he either faints or dies from extreme tiredness (and Dr. Wilk gets his shoes). As a matter of fact, Vincent uses up exactly all of his ATP molecules for energy by 5 minutes, given the provided values for calculations. (Try it! Take 2.6E23 times 5 and you will get exactly the number of ATP molecules that he started with!)","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":848066,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365441224","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"SITUATION 2 - Vincent ate a doughnut before running, but did not rest...","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":852565,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365472901","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"FIGURE 9","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":1367759,"object_id":"vincent_uta_1365466466","chart_type_nr":5,"data":[[["title"],["MIN","start",-500],["MAX","finish",500],["Value","85",-100],["Label","Vincent gets through at least over 3/4 of the chase"]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":848169,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365441907","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Based on Figure 7, we see that the slope of the data points BEFORE EXHAUSTION in SITUATION 2 will be the same for SITUATION 1 (slope represents ATP loss over time --- which is 2.6E23 ATP molecules per minute). We can also see that Vincent reaches the state of exhaustion by 17 minutes of non-stop running. However, just by eating a doughnut will help him to sustain the chase by three times as much. After 16 minutes, Vincent only has a little than 5% left of ATP molecules until he reaches minute 17. Wow - not only does a doughnut taste so good but also seems like a good recharger more or less........... A healthy snack? not so sure... Reality-wise, perhaps no one can run for about 20 minutes just by eating a doughnut. Since our calculations were based on arbitrary values for the sake of this project, this is only to get a good depiction of what happens if we eat before settling into the alarm phase.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":848306,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365442806","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"SITUATION 3 - Vincent ate a doughnut before running, got away from Dr. Wilk by minute 10, and took a rest in the parking light behind a car near Life Science building (which turned out to be hers.....oops...) ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":852572,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365472936","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"FIGURE 10","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"chart","chart_id":1367761,"object_id":"vincent_uta_1365466475","chart_type_nr":5,"data":[[["title"],["MIN","start",-500],["MAX","finish",500],["Value","100",-100],["Label","Vincent can complete the chase in given time span without dying if he rests (and if Dr. Wilk does not find him)"]]],"custom":{},"colors":[],"dimensions":[],"modifier":0,"sheetnames":[],"sheets_settings":[]},{"type":"particle","particle_id":850376,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365452950","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"We are finally able to spot a &#39;resistance&#39; phase on the graph for SITUATION 3 around minute a little before minute 10. We do expect the graph to slope upward, but ever so slightly. Resistance phase still costs some energy, but at the same time, release of cortisol is being administered by the hypothalamus due to stressor...in which cortisol (rides in cortisol-binding globulin for a bus) diffuse from blood into plasma membrane and binds to cortisol receptors in the cytosol. The receptors dimerize, translocate to nucleus, and bind to Hormone Response Elements in which zinc-finger domains will bind to targeted DNA sequences to regulate the synthesis of enzymes involved with gluconeogenesis. Technically speaking, this will allow Vincent&#39;s body to recover from the stress; He is slowly going into homeostatic restoration to regenerate lost supply of energy. (Recall that glucose molecules were being lost at a calculated rate of 7.0E21 molecules per minute). This will take some time and one can see that his rate of ATP is increasing at an average of 0.039E24 molecules per minute. He will survive! ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":852573,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365472944","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"FIGURE 11 = This table summarizes the calcuations for ATP at each stage of GAS:","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":852611,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365473276","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/vincent_uta1365473276.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":852621,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365473387","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"FIGURE 12 ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":843078,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365413958","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/vincent_uta1365413958.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":852628,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365473443","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Based on the distribution of energy in the pie graph in Figure 12, it is clear that eating just a doughnut (supplies 70% of the grand total ATP) is sufficient enough for Vincent to sustain 17 minutes of running in a given 20-minute time span. 30% of raw ATP is only enough to get near 5 minutes of running . Of course, a rigorous exercise that last for an hour requires a greater amount of ATP. The ATP utilized in this story is solely based for energy consumption in running. In reality, the body utilizes billions of ATP molecules for other purposes such as that of anabolic and catabolic chemical processes. Therefore, it is suggested that a person maintain an average daily intake of 2,500 calories in food to generate at least 180 kg of ATP (Bergman, Jerry). In cases involving a stress response, at least there would be enough energy extracted from glycogen reserves to sustain the individual through the alarm phase, get past resistance phase, and hopefully back to homeostatic balance... and not exhaustion phase...","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":852775,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365474728","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/vincent_uta1365474728.png"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":852575,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365472955","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":852799,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365474981","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"The only value that has been scientifically documented in text is the grams of ATP in the human body (by Jerry Bergman). Otherwise, values chosen for this calculations activity were arbitrarily chosen to simplify calculating and graphing purposes. In reality, the number of glucose molecules stored in the body or calories burned in an hour have to take account the weight, gender, distance of running, type of activity, etc. and such is different for every individual. It is a complex process, and finding such exact value is beyond the scope of this activity. The goal is to get a relative idea of how much ATP is being supplied at each stage of GAS during the run, even though the calculated ATP values for Vincent for each condition may not hold true. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":852574,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365472949","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"CITATIONS","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":847790,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365439885","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Bergman, Jerry. \"ATP The Perfect Energy Currency for the Cell.\" http://www.trueorigin.org/atp.asp","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":847791,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365439898","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"http://www.fatsecret.com/calories-nutrition/food/donuts/carbohydrate","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":853465,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365479588","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Wilk, Malgosia. \"Got Stress?\" Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Function.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":853463,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365479580","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Wilk, Malgosia. \"Glucose Transport.\" Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Function.","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":852905,"object_id":"vincent_uta1365476102","particle_type":"image","picture":"http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/vincent_uta1365476102.png"}],"theme":{"createdAt":"2016-04-22T04:54:06.000Z","updatedAt":"2016-12-28T10:32:26.000Z","logoImages":[""],"charts":{"treemap":{"labels":{"name":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow","fontWeight":"700"},"value":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans 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