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Created by:jalanawhite14jalanawhite14
{"id":319641,"type":0,"block_id":"27b5ed03320502919b3f8a8d99cc641c3017dbcf","theme_id":31,"user_id":98316,"path":"27b5ed033205-6915","title":"Literature Review: Athletic Braces","pubtitle":"Copy: Literature Review: Athletic Braces","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/27b5ed03320502919b3f8a8d99cc641c3017dbcf.jpg","width":700,"copyright":"","properties":{"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":11058778,"object_id":"513d7cf0-e9db-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Literature Review: Athletic Braces","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":283509,"object_id":"fcef1f6345857ed1e39e33f6757959fc7b01b26c","particle_type":"quote","picture":"","text":"Jalana White","content_type":"","title":" ","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":283510,"object_id":"cd2b44fb16cce75bf9da86821c3c226d3c5b7067","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":"","text":"Overview","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":283511,"object_id":"c083eea003fcca09de77f56c4822c70ea6d53d55","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":"","text":"There are many different ways that injuries can occur during sporting events. One of the precautions that athletes must take is making sure to protect their body from injury. If one area of the body is injured, it is likely that another area could be compensating for the injury and therefore become hurt because of the extra work output. In order to sustain from injury, or recover from a previous injury, it is important that athletes help to protect their bodies with helpful athletic equipment such as braces. Lower extremity braces, such as those designed for ankles and knees, help to make sure that major joints in the body are secured during athletic performance. Medical and sports professionals are beginning to develop better insight about the benefits, consequences, and overall functions of lower extremity braces.","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":283512,"object_id":"d5ad43a21257398e9f987157979884c87a1e2a2a","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":"","text":"Research Update 1 10/19/2012","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":283516,"object_id":"592a3408746a5c0b3be1909bfc059df08149b679","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":"","text":"So far, Google scholar has been my best resource. It has led me to many full length text sources, as well as websites such as PubMed which have many great sources. I have also been using EBSCO from the Health Science department in the Library. It&#39;s search results are much more specific to certain types of injuries that require braces. I want to find more information about the negative effects of wearing braces, as well as some information about what medical professionals are recommending after their research. 10/19/2012","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":283513,"object_id":"6159ce77ad0f890c92aa2da6c1a407940c1636ff","particle_type":"video","picture":"","text":"//youtube.com/embed/bar-kTk6Xks"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":283514,"object_id":"910d143d94e50db23c5903176dcc651996c6b18a","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":"","text":"Research Update 2","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":283515,"object_id":"d11b8411eeb7592a2a3d22e25c42eb060b2417d1","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":"","text":"Working off of last weeks research, I discovered some great Sports Medicine journals and Health Science databases. Most of this weeks research was tracking down specific authors and researchers to see if they had conducted more than one study about using athletic braces. Now that my topic is becoming more in depth, I have decided to focus mostly to lower extremity braces, specifically knee and ankle braces. There are common themes developing through the research that I have been doing. Football, basketball, soccer, and volleyball are the sports that tend to get the most focus for brace wearing. Many researchers also have fixed feelings about braces. ","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":283517,"object_id":"259852294a5d03e69722149267d340d733fc2196","particle_type":"video","picture":"","text":"//youtube.com/embed/T9KEFGMox3M"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":283518,"object_id":"31dc662ae544d171efb6c731c5e88f6f8ed9706e","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":"","text":"Research Guide","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":283524,"object_id":"970987cf3e162a73651ed1b6be0b4cede98e62d2","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":"","text":"Topic 1: Can Lower Extremity Braces Help Reduce Injury Risks?\n\tWearing an ankle or knee brace can help to prevent injuries that may be obtained during athletic performance. These injuries usually include sprains, strains, and tears of ligaments and tendons. Some of the more commonly acknowledged sports for wearing braces are contact sports, such as football and basketball, and dynamic sports that require extended amounts vertical jumping, such as volleyball. In a study that was conducted by experts working through the American Journal of Sports Medicine, they tested to see if football players that were wearing a knee brace were less likely to sustain an injury. The researchers found that the use of a knee brace decreased the risk of tearing the MCL in the knee joint (Najibi and Albright 602-611). \nSimilarly, a different study that was conducted through the University of Wisconsin-Madison tested how ankle braces acted to reduce injury in football players. The findings were astounding to the researchers because the data showed that those athletes that wore ankle braces during play were sixty-one percent less likely to have an ankle injury (“Ankle”). The head researcher, Timothy A. McGuine said, “I didn’t think the braces could be that effective.” In a separate research study that was conducted by McGuine, the results of ankle injuries were parallel to his other findings. However, this study tested basketball players. Injury rates drastically decreased in those athletes that decided to wear ankle braces during basketball practices and games (“Wisconsin”). One of the co-researchers on the study was Dr. Alison Brooks who discussed the positives of wearing ankle braces compared to the cost of the actual braces. She explained that “the benefits of ankle braces far outweigh the expense” (“Wisconsin”). \nAnother study was conducted to see which method could prevent more injuries and be more cost effective: ankle braces or ankle taping. The researchers found that ankle braces were less restrictive on the ankle joint movement, and did not negatively affect performance as much as taping did (Callaghan 102-108). Overall, ankle bracing was more effective and less expensive than taping the joint (102-108).\n\nTopic 2: Can Lower Extremity Braces Improve Athletic Performance?\n\tAlthough ankle and knee braces have be proven to help reduce the risk of injury, it is important to understand the effects that they have on an athlete’s performance. As intended, the purposed of a brace is to restrict the range of motion for that particular joint so that the ligaments are not pushed beyond their maximum ability. Many people believe that this restriction could have negative effects on activities such as running, vertical and horizontal jumping, and overall agility. In a recent study, it was shown that ankle bracing has either no or only a slight effect on these three activities (Bot and van Mechelen 171-178).\n\tNot only is there a question about what kind of effect ankle bracing may have on an athlete, but researchers are discovering which kinds of braces work best for athletic performance. For example, a study tested collegiate volleyball female athletes that were wearing one of two kinds of braces; one group wore regular ankle braces while the second group wore active ankles, which are thought to give more range of motion (Shaw, Gribble, and Frye 164-171). The study was designed to test which brace was more dynamically stable after jumping exercises during both normal and fatigued levels of exercise (164-171). The results were that regular ankle braces provided more stability for the volleyball players than the active ankle braces (164-171).\n\tIn research that is conducted about knee braces on performance, findings are similar to those of ankle brace studies. One study concluded that “knee braces do at least have the potential to restrict the performance of the athlete in high-speed running, but the effect is related to several factors” (Najibi and Albright 602-611). The factors may include the size, type, and weight of the knee braces. A person could assume that a large object placed onto a joint would probably make the body’s natural function more difficult.\n\tA similar study published in the Lower Extremity Review paralleled the others. The main focus was to determine whether an athlete’s body is able to adapt to the wearing of lower extremity braces, or if it has negative effects. The researchers in the study tested athlete’s baseline performances without wearing braces. The athlete’s then performed all activities with a brace on for four continuous weeks. After the four weeks were done, the researchers tested the athletes again and found that the baseline data was almost identical to the post-test data (Rishiraj et al.). However, there was decrease in the initial ability of the athlete to perform at baseline levels. The researchers said that this would make sense because “similar to the break-in period required for new footwear, continued use of any athletic equipment leads to familiarization” (Rishiraj et al.). The conclusion of whether lower extremity braces effect athletic performance is generally that there is no negative effect, and athletes should be able to return to full function after getting used to their braces.\n\nTopic 3: How Do Braces Help During Rehabilitation?\n\tAfter obtaining a knee or ankle injury, many physicians and physical therapists recommend that an athlete wear a brace to help stabilize the joint and begin to put pressure on the affected area. However, most physicians would agree that a knee brace is not a solution to fix the problem area. Knee braces should be used in combination with strengthening and flexibility exercises (“Do I Need”). If the joint does not received strength training after injury, it will begin to rely on the brace and not gain full strength in the long term (“Do I Need”).\n\tOne of the most common injuries that occur during sporting events is the tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) which is located in the knee. A recent study that was published in Clinical Orthopedics & Related Research focused specifically on knee bracing after an ACL tear and surgical reconstruction. The researchers found that a knee extension constraint brace was able to help the athlete increase knee flexion and took pressure off the ACL joint (Stanley et al. 1774-1780). These results were a positive reinforcement in showing that knee braces can help during the rehabilitation process when combined with other strengthening mechanisms (1774-1780).\n\nTopic 4: Are There Negative Effects to Wearing Lower Extremity Braces?\n\tAlthough lower extremity braces can help to prevent injury by stabilizing the joints, there has been some debate about whether wearing braces can have negative effects on the athlete’s body. Many medical researchers speculate that because the braces put so much pressure on the joint, it could cause an athlete to develop a reliance on the brace. Stephanie Adams, a qualified physical therapist and athletic trainer, wrote in her blog that although braces limit an athlete’s range of motion, “preventative knee braces can be a great thing for your knee” (Adams). A similar blog also confirmed the findings that Adams had made in her studies and stated that although it is a common belief that wearing ankle braces may weaken either the ankle or knee joint, it is incorrect to state that the ankle joint will stop working (Jess). The blog, which focused on ankle braces designed for volleyball players, stated that if an athlete is wearing an ankle brace it is likely that the knee joint may compensate for the low range of motion, and therefore may be at a higher risk for injury (Jess). On the contrary, a research study conducted by Giselle Aerni focused on whether wearing lace up ankle braces had negative effects on the knee joint; the research concluded that there was no negative impact from the braces (Aerni).\n\tSince there are a few different types of knee and ankle braces that can be chosen to be worn, some research has been dedicated to figuring out which type is most effective, especially for the knee. One group of researchers found that each type of brace has both pros and cons to wearing the brace during athletic performance. For example, while prophylactic braces help stabilize the MCL, the brace puts the athlete at a high risk for having a false sense of security (Paluska and McKeag 411-418). Functional knee braces help athletes that need to stabilize the ACL, but make the athlete spend more energy and have a decrease in joint rotation (411-418). Patellofemoral knee braces help with patellar injury, but are known to cause skin lesions and are less effective than rehabilitation with therapy (411-418). The athlete should also take into account whether the possible decrease in athletic performance is worth the risk of wearing a lower extremity brace (Callaghan 102-108).\n\tAlthough there is debate about whether an athlete should or should not wear lower extremity braces, it is most important for the athlete to consult with a physical therapist or athletic trainer to indicate which type of brace would be most effective. It is also important that the athlete undergoes strengthening therapy in order to put the joints back to full health and prevent further injury. \n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284178,"object_id":"jalanawhite141352089876","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Annotation to Five Key Sources","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284180,"object_id":"jalanawhite141352089898","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"1. Rishiraj, Neetu., Taunton, Jack., Lloyd-Smith, Robert., Regan, William., Prasad, Navid. “Functional Knee Bracing and Athletic Performance.” Lower Extremity Review June 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. \nThis source was an article in the Lower Extremity Review that was written by Neetu Rishiraj (ATC, PhD), Jack E. Taunton (MSc, MD), Robert Lloyd-Smith (MD), William Regan (MD), and Navin Prasad (MSc, MD). Since there were so many different highly qualified authors, it made this source easier to trust and cite for my research. It also focused on the effects that braces have on athletes during their performances. The authors also conducted their own research, as well as using research from previous sources. They concluded that wearing a brace takes some getting used to, just as breaking shoes in takes some time before it feels comfortable on your body. Eventually, the body will adapt and it can aid in performance. This source agreed with the other sources that I found regarding the topic of braces and athletic performance.\n\n2. “Wisconsin Study Shows Fewer Injuries Among Athletes with Ankle Braces.” UW Health. N.p., 11 July 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2012.\nThis source did not have a specific author for the article, but it used the research data collections from the team of sports medicine professionals at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health. The head researcher was Tim McGuine who is also a certified athletic trainer. The co-researcher was Dr. Alison Brooks, who is also an assistant professor in the orthopedic department at UW. The research that McGuine and Brooks did was conclusive and relative to my review. They found that athletes definitely benefit from wearing ankle braces, and highly encourage parents to buy ankle braces for their children that are involved in sports. This was a good source to use because it also agreed with my other sources, it was based from qualified professionals, and they gave specific instructions about what they believe. \n\n3. Paluska, Scott., McKeag, Douglas. “Knee Braces: Current Evidence and Clinical Recommendations for Their Use.” American Family Physician 61.2 (2000): 411-418. Print.\nThis source was written by Scott Paluska (MD) and Douglas McKeag (MD, MS). As I conducted further research, I found that Scott Paluska has piloted many different research studies that relate to knee braces. I also trusted using this source since American Family Physicians is a peer reviewed journal, which means that it is checked by others that research in the same studies. This source talked about two different kinds of knee braces, and explored the effects of both. The research coincided with the other sources that found that braces can definitely benefit both athletes and patients that are in a state of rehabilitation. I also liked this source because it gave both positives and negatives of each kind of brace.\n\n4. Jess, P.T. “Bracing for Action: Are Ankle Braces Effective for Volleyball Players?” PT Sports Wellness Wordpress. n.pag., 7 July 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2012.\nThis source was a blog that was written by P.T. Jess. Although there were no credentials that were given about the author, I still believed that this was a good source to use because the blog cited from other reliable journals and authors. I was interested that I found a blog as a source because I initially did not think that blogs were going to be reliable. However, this blog captured my attention because it had good information, and was formatted in a “question/answer” type article. This made it easy to read, and if the information looked suspicious, I would be able to look up what other professionals were saying. For the most part, this source had the same type of information that the others found, and ended up being one of my favorite sources to use. \n\n5. Bot, Sandra., van Mechelen, Willem. \"The Effect of Ankle Bracing on Athletic Performance.\" Sports Medicine 27.3 (1999): 171-178. Academic Search Complete. Web. 30 Oct. 2012.\nThis was a good source to use because it was a research study by Sandra Bot and Willem van Mechelen. The study tested the effects of braces on athletic performance by testing many different kinds of activities such as jumping, running, and agility tests. I enjoyed reading the information that was found in the study because it was very specific, and the researchers had raw data to stand behind why they do or do not believe lower extremity braces are good for athletes. For some of the tests, braces had to negative effect on the participant. However, some of the activities combined with brace usage did have a negative effect on the performance of the athlete. This source helped give good insight for some of my stasis questions. \n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284184,"object_id":"jalanawhite141352089944","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"Works Cited","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":284186,"object_id":"jalanawhite141352089984","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Adams, Stephanie. “Preventative Knee Bracing: A Do or a Don’t.” Tweak Fit. n.pag., 1 year ago. Web. 30 Oct. 2012.\nAerni, Gisselle., American Medical Society for Sports Medicine. \"Wearing an Ankle Brace May Not Increase Injury Risk to the Knee, Studies Suggests.\"ScienceDaily, 25 Apr. 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2012.\n“Ankle Braces May Help Teen Football Players.” Fox News. FOX News Network 21 Oct. 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2012.\nBot, Sandra., van Mechelen, Willem. \"The Effect of Ankle Bracing on Athletic Performance.\" Sports Medicine 27.3 (1999): 171-178. Academic Search Complete. Web. 30 Oct. 2012.\nCallaghan, M. J. “Role of Ankle Taping and Bracing in the Athlete.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 31.2 (1997): 102-108. Print.\n“Do I Need a Knee Brace?” TheKnee.com. The Joint Pain Institute, 2010. Web. 30 Oct. 2012.\nJess, P.T. “Bracing for Action: Are Ankle Braces Effective for Volleyball Players?” PT Sports Wellness Wordpress. n.pag., 7 July 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2012.\nNajibi, Soheil., Albright, John. “The Use of Knee Braces, Part 1: Prophylactic Knee Braces in Contact Sports.” American Journal of Sports Medicine 33.4 (2005): 602-611. Print.\nPaluska, Scott., McKeag, Douglas. “Knee Braces: Current Evidence and Clinical Recommendations for Their Use.” American Family Physician 61.2 (2000): 411-418. Print.\nRishiraj, Neetu., Taunton, Jack., Lloyd-Smith, Robert., Regan, William., Prasad, Navid. “Functional Knee Bracing and Athletic Performance.” Lower Extremity Review June 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. \nShaw, Megan., Gribble, Phillip., Frye, Jamie. “Ankle Bracing, Fatigue, and Time to Stabilization in Collegiate Volleyball Athletes.” Journal of Athletic Training 43.2 (2008):164-171. Print.\nStanley, Christopher., Creighton, Alexander., Gross, Michael., Garrett, William., Yu, Bing. “Effects of a Knee Extension Constraint Brace on Lower Extremity Movements after ACL Reconstruction.” Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 459.6 (2011): 1774-1780. Academic Search Complete. Web. 30 Oct. 2012.\n “Wisconsin Study Shows Fewer Injuries Among Athletes with Ankle Braces.” UW Health. N.p., 11 July 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2012.\n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null}],"theme":{"createdAt":"2016-04-22T04:54:07.000Z","updatedAt":"2016-12-28T10:33:43.000Z","logoImages":[""],"charts":{"treemap":{"labels":{"name":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow","fontWeight":"700"},"value":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"}}},"wordcloud":{"labels":{"fontFamily":"Arial","fontWeight":"700"}},"table":{"cellBackground":"#ffffff","headerBackground":"#eeeeee","cellColor":"#232323","headerColor":"#232323","shapeFill":"#232323"}},"color":{"bg":"#ffffff","text":"#000000","chart":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#767676"},"element":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#000000"}},"colorPresets":[],"localFonts":[],"font":{"common":{"textAlign":"initial","fontSize":"16","fontStyle":"normal","fontWeight":"400","fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"},"legend":{"fontSize":"16","fontWeight":"400"},"label":{"fontSize":16,"fontWeight":400}},"fontPresets":[],"fontFamilies":["Pontano Sans","PT Sans","PT Sans Narrow","Arial 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