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{"id":322751,"type":0,"block_id":"AnnaShort_1352146375","theme_id":21,"user_id":108294,"path":"1352146375-681051","title":"INTROVERT LITERATURE REVIEW","pubtitle":"INTROVERT LITERATURE REVIEW","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/AnnaShort_1352146375.jpg","width":550,"copyright":null,"properties":{"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":12700648,"object_id":"a832b7ed-ea1f-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"INTROVERT LITERATURE REVIEW","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286716,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352146490","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"A LOOK AT INTROVERTS AND LEADERSHIP: OVERVIEW","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286722,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352146457","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Earlier this year the book Quiet was published by author Susan Cain. It focuses on introverts, and since its release Quiet has become incredibly popular and has sparked articles, presentations and discussions about introverts and their role in the world. One of Cain’s chapters focuses on introverts as leaders, referencing studies and articles that focus on the subject of how introverts make good leaders which is an area of study that is still just beginning to be explored. In this day and age America embraces wholeheartedly the extroverted leader, but what about introverts? Can they lead as well as, or even better than, extroverts? There is evidence from many different sources, both referenced in Susan Cain’s books and not, that shows what introverted leaders can do.","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286867,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352147017","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"RESEARCH UPDATE NO. 1","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286901,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352147261","particle_type":"video","picture":null,"text":"//youtube.com/embed/JXluIP7qgPU&feature"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286905,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352147457","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"I’m learning to not spend too much time on sources that might seem not relevant since they waste time and energy since I have a tendency to do that when I research. But I’m excited to get started on looking at research studies that people have done, I’ve never really researched actual scientific studies before so that should be different. Susan Cain’s book has been very useful so far, and I’m hoping to use it a lot. I think I need to search for my own original sources though and not ones someone has already compiled into a book. 10/18/2012","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":287037,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352149879","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"RESEARCH UPDATE NO. 2","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286896,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352147196","particle_type":"video","picture":null,"text":"//youtube.com/embed/ykjEmRguGrA&feature"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286912,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352147510","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"In my research I’m learning that I need to have a narrow topic if I don’t want to spend huge amounts of time following every lead I find and subsequently reading them. I like using one source (like Cain’s book) and then building off of that, it makes the research a bit more focused and less cluttered. Now I just need to work on reading large quantities of research without it all blurring together and I also need to work on analyzing what I read. 10/26/12","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286886,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352147080","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"WHAT IS AN INTROVERT?","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286887,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352148436","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"There are many different definitions of an introvert. The idea of an introvert as a personality type began with Carl Jung and was later carried over into the Meyers-Briggs personality type indicator. But the idea of the introvert and the extrovert has been around for centuries with extroverts as the “man of action” and the introvert as the “man of contemplation” as Cain explains in her book (Cain 269). The main difference between introverts and extroverts is where they get their energy. Introverts get energized by doing things internally in the inner world of feelings and ideas. Extroverts, on the other hand, derive most of their energy from the outside world. They like so socialize, go places, and being busy (Laney 19-21). Extroverts are, as Jonathan Rauch states in his article about introverts, the people who will reach for their phone if they are left alone for more than a few minutes. They need to be stimulated by the world around them in order to receive energy. \n\nScientifically speaking, introverts have shorter D4DR genes and are therefore more sensitive to the neurotransmitter dopamine, which means they do not need as much stimulation in order to receive enough levels of dopamine to feel energized. Extroverts are the opposite, they have longer D4DR genes and need higher levels of dopamine to receive enough energy. This means that they need to go out into the world and do things more often than introverts, who need less stimulation and can be satisfied by simply staying inside and reading a book (Laney 66-67). There are other biological factors that contribute to an individual’s extroversion or introversion, but dopamine levels demonstrate effectively the difference between extroverts and introverts and where and how they derive their energy\n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286958,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352148486","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"WHAT QUALITIES MAKE INTROVERTS BETTER LEADERS?","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286963,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352148535","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"When most people think of a successful leader they think of an extrovert – someone who is outgoing, gregarious, enjoys the spotlight and has a bit of an ego. Cain talks about Harvard Business School in her book and how everyone there seems to be an extrovert. One graduate calls Harvard Business School the “Spiritual Capital of Extroversion” while a student says “Everyone around you is speaking up and being social and going out” (Cain 43-44). Everyone expects the business world to be full of extroverted leaders just like it is at Harvard Business School, but in fact the best leaders are not all extroverts. \n\nIn a study done by Adam M. Grant from the University of Pennsylvania, Francesca Gino from Harvard, and David A. Hofmann from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill about leadership in pizza delivery companies, they found that introverts lead better than extroverts in some situations. Extroverts tend to be more dominant, talkative, and more likely to want to stand in the spotlight which can clash with workers who tend to be proactive. The extroverted leader feels threatened, unreceptive and a need to reassert their authority when a worker offers an opinion, which in turn makes the worker feel shunned and undervalued. In contrast, an introverted leader does not want the spotlight in the first place and therefore is more open to suggestions from proactive workers, making for a more profitable environment. Extroverts lead best when the workers underneath them offer fewer ideas and need more direct leadership (Grant et al). It is these introverted qualities of listening to people’s ideas and concerns as well as not needing to dominate social situations that make introverts effective leaders.\n\nIn his article Les McKeown talks about four success secrets of introverts rather than attempting describe the ways introverts can conform to extroverted ideals. He claims that there are more flourishing introverted leaders than extroverted by a ratio of four to one, you just never hear of them because the extroverted leaders are the ones that get noticed because of their outgoing personality that naturally draws the attention of the press. But McKeown believes that the introvert’s ability to fly under the radar without much media coverage is a strength for one main reason – they can fix mistakes they make with a small amount of damage to their reputation. Companies led by introverts also gain a certain anonymity, and unlike companies like Microsoft they can have what they do next be a mystery. McKeown also uses the same idea of the introverted leader being more receptive of a strong team with lots of ideas that Grant and his fellow authors studied. McKeown uses the game designing company Valve as his example, whose About Us page on their website says “No bosses, no middle management, no bureaucracy. Just highly motivated peers coming together to make cool stuff.” He also talks about how introverts tend to focus on one project until it is not only finished, but done well. Conversely, extroverts can suffer from what McKeown calls “shiny new object syndrome” and can start so many new projects that workers are exhausted without many projects actually being completed (McKeown). \n\nAnother area of leadership that introverts excel at is delegation, at least according to Susan Cain and Adam Grant. In Quiet Cain describes a story that Grant told her about a wing commander in the U.S. Air Force who was in charge of thousands of people. He was a respected and highly introverted leader who implemented the same ideas that Grant and McKeown champion. He let the people below him have input in decisions, and while he always had the final say, he also delegated away important tasks that many extroverted leaders would have kept to themselves in order to achieve more recognition (Cain 55-56). Marti Olsen Laney disagrees in her book The Introvert Advantage, stating that introverts may fail to delegate (Laney 214). However Laney uses fewer sources to back up her idea than Cain does, making Cain the authority in the area of the strengths of introverted leaders over Laney.\n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286965,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352148597","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"HOW CAN INTROVERTED LEADERSHIP BE ENCOURAGED AND IMPROVED?","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286967,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352148632","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"One method that helps introverts that Cain encourages companies to use is strategically planning their workspaces. She begins by explaining how solitary work tends to be more productive than group work, referencing studies at the Music Academy in West Berlin as well as the life of Stephen Wozniak, builder of the first PC. Cain then references the Coding War Games, Reebok’s shoe design in their new offices and Jason Fried’s approach to the workplace as supporting evidence for her main idea about the issue of how office space is set up. Cain describes how open-plan offices actually reduce productivity while offices that offer more privacy, like using cubicles, increase productivity (Cain 83-86). She builds on this technique by talking about workplaces that use floor plans and routines that encourage chance encounters. Chance encounters with colleagues, unlike meetings and groups projects, offer a more casual and relaxed which made talking and collaborating with coworkers less stressful and judgmental which is essential not only for introverts, but also for extroverts. These kinds of designs are used at Pixar and Microsoft, and when Stephen Wozniak worked at Hewlett-Packard doughnuts and coffee were brought in at specific times and workers would talk in a comfortable, informal setting. \n\t\nIn his article about leadership for introverts Joe Taylor talks about author Jennifer B. Kahnweiler’s tips for introverted leaders in her book The Introverted Leader, which includes the same ideas Cain has about a mix of public and private spaces in the workplace to encourage a healthy environment for both introverts and extroverts. Also in Taylor’s article is one of Kahnweiler’s methods for introverts to become more effective leaders, which is to take the Meyers-Briggs personality test and then create teams that work well together based off of each person’s personality type (Taylor). This goes hand in hand with Adam Grant’s study on the relationship between extroverted and introverted leaders and workers. Kahnweiler’s ideas also come up in an article about leadership strategies for introverts from Leader to Leader magazine which talks about how introverts need to talk face to face with coworkers, an idea that is mirrored in Matthew Hutson’s article where he stresses the need to network, no matter how much introverts may not like it (Hutson). Other suggestions that Kahnweiler makes seem to be forcing the extroverted ideal upon introverts, like her suggestion that introverts need to assert themselves and speak up in the first five minutes of a meeting (Taylor). This goes against Cain’s opinions, who talks about how Jason Fried says employees do not even have to attend meetings in his company and how original ideas tend to get lost in meetings due to what she calls “groupthink”, or the tendency humans have to agree with whoever speaks loudest and not necessarily with who is correct. \n\nBut with the proper environment and a position that suits them, introverts can defy the social expectations to become successful leaders like so many before them.\n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286973,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352148831","particle_type":"bodytitle","picture":null,"text":"WORKS CITED","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286979,"object_id":"Anna_Short1352148892","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Cain, Susan. Quiet. NYC: Crown Publishers, 2012. Print. \n\n\t Susan Cain’s book is my main source in my literature review. I built most of my research off of it and tied the rest of my research back to it. Her book is very popular at this time, and has gained a lot of recognition. She did extensive research for this book, including studies that have been referenced by other books and articles on introverts and leadership. \n\nGrant, Adam M., Francesca Gino, and David A. Hofmann. “The Hidden Advantages of Quiet Bosses.” Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Review, Dec 2010. Web. 11/3/12.\n\n\tAdam Grant, Francesca Gino, and David Hofmann’s study on introverted and extroverted leaders started by researching 130 U.S. pizza delivery companies and how extroverted managers cooperate with their employees and how introverted managers do the same. They also did a lab experiment where they grouped up 163 college students and recorded how many t-shirts they folded in ten minutes depending what type of leader they had. This seems to be a fairly prominent study, showing up in Susan Cain’s book as well as articles by Karl Moore and Carmen Nobel.\n\nLaney, Marti Olsen. The Introvert Advantage. NYC: Workman, 2002. Print. \n\n\tMarti Olsen Laney’s book provides a useful oversight on introversion. She has a doctorate degree in psychoanalysis. Her book does not focus much on introversion as it relates to leadership, and also conflicts with some ideas that Susan Cain puts forward in her book. But it provides a good definition as to what an introverted person is really like and is useful as a reference about life as an introvert. \n\n McKeown, Les. “Four Secrets of Successful Introverts.” CEO.com. CEO.com, June 18, 2012. Web. 11/3/12.\n\n\tI liked this article because unlike many other articles about introverts and leadership it focused on the introvert’s true strengths instead of attempting to adapt an extrovert’s strengths to an introvert like many other people, for example Jennifer Kahnweiler, try and do. Les McKeown is also the author of the book The Synergist: How to Lead Your Team to Predictable Success and CEO of Predictable Success. \n\nRev. of Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World that Can’t Stop Talking. Publishers Weekly 31 Oct. 2011: 47. Print.\n\n\tThis was a useful source because this review talked about the two main problems that I found with Susan Cain’s book - that it did not have enough sources and that it did not accurately enough depict western versus eastern values of introverts and extroverts, especially within the Chinese culture. \n\nBordeaux, Hope. “Introverts in the Office: How to Work Well in an Extrovert’s World.” The Daily Muse. The Daily Muse, 12 June 2012. Web. 21 Oct. 2012.\n\nCain, Susan. Susan Cain: The Power of Introverts. TED.com. TED Conferences, 2012. Web Video. 21 Oct. 2012.\n\nHutson, Matthew. “Self Promote (The Introverts’ Edition).” Psychology Today Nov/Dec 2009: 25-25. Print.\n\n“Leadership Strategies for Introverts.” Leader to Leader Fall 2009: 59-60. Print. \n\nMoore, Karl. “Introverts No Longer the Quiet Followers of Extroverts.” Forbes. Forbes, 22 Aug. 2012. Web. 21 Oct. 2012.\n\nRauch, Jonathan. “Caring for Your Introvert.” Post-President for Life. The Atlantic, Mar. 2003. Web. 11/3/12.\n\nTaylor, Joe. “Leadership for Introverts.” Smallbusinesscomputing.com. IT Business Edge, 29 Oct. 2012. Web. 11/3/12.\n","content_type":"","title":null,"shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286859,"object_id":"Anna Short1352146756","particle_type":"image","picture":"uploads/Anna Short1352146756.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286872,"object_id":"Anna Short1352146845","particle_type":"image","picture":"uploads/Anna Short1352146845.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":286894,"object_id":"Anna Short1352147129","particle_type":"image","picture":"uploads/Anna Short1352147129.jpg"}],"theme":{"createdAt":"2016-04-22T04:54:06.000Z","updatedAt":"2016-12-28T10:32:26.000Z","logoImages":[""],"charts":{"treemap":{"labels":{"name":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow","fontWeight":"700"},"value":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans 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