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{"id":1207908,"type":0,"block_id":"mossman83_1370228032","theme_id":29,"user_id":248536,"path":"-mossman83_1370228032","title":"","pubtitle":"Biochemistry","tags":"","public":true,"publicAccess":true,"private_link_enabled":0,"thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/mossman83_1370228032.jpg","width":550,"copyright":"Copyright notice","properties":{"publishType":0,"transparent":false,"rtl":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"whitelabel":false,"embed_button":"enabled","title_link":"infogram","custom_logo":"infogram","custom_link_url":"","embed_button_text":"Share","decimal_separator":".,"},"elements":[{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477702,"object_id":"mossman83_1370233344","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/mossman83_1370233344.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477242,"object_id":"mossman83_1370228032","particle_type":"quote","picture":null,"text":"Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within, and relating to, living organisms.","content_type":"","title":"Biochemistry is made up of 6 main elements: Oxygen, Hydrogen, Carbon, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Nitrogen.","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477708,"object_id":"mossman831370233431","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"The key thing to remember is that biochemistry is the chemistry of the living world. Plants, animals, single-celled organisms... they all use the same basic chemical compounds to live their lives. Biochemistry is not about the cells or the organisms. It's about the smallest parts of those organisms, the molecules. It's also about the cycles that happen to create those biological compounds. The cycles usually rely on enzymes and other proteins to move atoms and molecules. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477291,"object_id":"mossman831370228762","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Oxygen","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477625,"object_id":"mossman83_1370232479","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/mossman83_1370232479.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477297,"object_id":"mossman831370228887","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Oxygen is present in water and water is essential to life. Oxygen gas is colorless, odorless and tasteless. The liquid and solid forms are a pale blue color. Because of its highly reactive nature, oxygen is a component of hundreds of thousands of organic compounds and combines with most elements. Oxygen accounts for two-thirds of the mass of the human body and nine-tenths of the mass of water. Nearly half of the mass of Earth's crust is made up of oxygen. Ozone, or trioxygen, consists of three oxygen atoms. It is a highly active compound and is formed by the action of an electrical discharge or ultraviolet light on oxygen. All life relies on oxygen for respiration. Hospitals frequently prescribe oxygen for patients with respiratory ailments. In the United States, commercial oxygen consumption is estimated at 20 million short tons per year, and the demand is expected to rise. Oxygen is essential for combustion. Liquid oxygen, combined with liquid hydrogen, makes an excellent rocket fuel. Oxygen plays a vital role in smelting steel and in oxyacetylene welding. Oxygen enrichment of steel blast furnaces accounts for the most significant use of the gas. It also takes large quantities of oxygen synthesis gas for ammonia and methanol, ethylene oxide, and for oxyacetylene welding.\n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477325,"object_id":"mossman831370229294","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Hydrogen","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477647,"object_id":"mossman83_1370232704","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/mossman83_1370232704.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477334,"object_id":"mossman831370229406","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. The heavier elements were made from hydrogen or from other elements that were made from hydrogen. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, combustible gas. Hydrogen gas is so light and diffusive that uncombined hydrogen can escape from the atmosphere. Hydrogen is important in the proton-proton reaction and carbon-nitrogen cycle. Liquid hydrogen is used in cryogenics and in the study of superconductivity. Great quantities are used for the fixation of nitrogen from the air in the Haber ammonia process. Hydrogen is use in welding, for the hydrogenation of fats and oils, in methanol production, in hydrodealkylation, hydrocracking, and hydrodesulfurization. Other applications include producing rocket fuel, filling balloons, making fuel cells, producing hydrochloric acid, and reducing metallic ores. While about 75% of the universe's elemental mass is hydrogen, hydrogen is relatively rare on Earth. The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium, which has one proton, but no neutrons. Hydrogen gas is extremely flammable. It was associated with the famous explosion of the Hindenburg airship and is used as a fuel by the space shuttle main engine. ","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477345,"object_id":"mossman831370229576","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Carbon","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477642,"object_id":"mossman83_1370232675","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/mossman83_1370232675.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477354,"object_id":"mossman831370229674","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Carbon is one of the most abundant elements in the universe; it is plentiful in the stars, sun, comets and the atmospheres of most planets. Some meteorites contain microscopic diamonds, a form of carbon. The energy of stars can be attributed at least in part to the carbon-nitrogen cycle. Without carbon, the basis for life would be impossible. Carbon is unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. With hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other elements, it forms a very large number of compounds. There are nearly 10 million known carbon compounds, many thousands of which are essential to life and organic processes. Some of the most important carbon compounds are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, methane, ethylene, acetylene, benzene, acetic acid and their derivitives. Carbon is most commonly obtained in coal deposits. Diamonds are found in volcanic rock, called kimberlite, located in South Africa, Arkansas, and elsewhere. The ocean floor off the Cape of Good Hope is another area where diamonds are being discovered. In combination, carbon is found as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and dissolved in all natural waters. Carbon is a component of great rock masses made of calcium, magnesium and iron, which are carbonates. Earth's core contains the planet's largest reservoir of carbon.\n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477374,"object_id":"mossman831370229962","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Phosphorus","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477643,"object_id":"mossman83_1370232684","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/mossman83_1370232684.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477388,"object_id":"mossman831370230106","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Phosphorus is a nonmetal and part of Group 15, the pnictogens, or nitrogen family. It exists in multiple allotropic forms: white or yellow, red, and black or violet. Standard phosphorus is a waxy white solid substance, but when it is pure it is colorless and transparent. Phosphorus is never found free in nature; it is found in combination with a wide variety of minerals. Phosphate rock, which contains the mineral apatite, is an impure tri-calcium phosphate and an important source of phosphorus. Large deposits of phosphate rock are found in Russia, Morocco, Florida, Tennessee, Utah, Idaho and other places. White phosphorus can be made through several methods. A common process is heating tri-calcium phosphate, the essential ingredient of phosphate rock, in the presence of carbon and silica in an electric furnace or fired furnace. Elementary phosphorus is then released as a vapor and can be collected under phosphoric acid. It is an important compound in making super-phosphate fertilizers. Phosphorus is an important component in the production of steel, phosphor bronze and many other products. Trisodium phosphate is valuable as a cleaning agent, a water softener, and for preventing boiler scale and corrosion of pipes and boiler tubes. Phosphates are used in the production of special glasses, such as those used for sodium lamps (street lights). Phosphorus is a key ingredient in the red tip of ordinary kitchen matches. In recent years, concentrated phosphoric acids have become a critical part of agriculture and farm production. Phosphoric acids may contain as much as 75 percent phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) content and are used as fertilizers. Large agricultural businesses around the world have increased demand for fertilizer resulting in record phosphate production. Phosphoric acid is also used in soft drinks. Calcium phosphate — also known as bone-ash — is used in creating chinaware and to produce mono-calcium phosphate that is used in baking powder. Phosphorus is not only useful in inorganic products, though; it is an essential ingredient of all cell protoplasm, nerve tissue and bones.\n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477464,"object_id":"mossman831370231109","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Sulfur","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477659,"object_id":"mossman83_1370232816","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/mossman83_1370232816.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477546,"object_id":"mossman831370231639","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Sulfur is a pale yellow, odorless, brittle solid. It is classified as a nonmetal in Group 15, the pnictogens, or nitrogen family. It is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide. Whether as a gas, liquid, or solid, elemental sulfur has more than one allotropic form or modification, resulting in a multitude of sulfur forms whose relations are not fully understood. There are many compounds of sulfur that are important to scientists. Some are calcium sulfur, ammonium sulfate, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Precaution must be taken when handling carbon disulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is a dangerous component in atmospheric air pollution. Sulfur hexafluoride, a greenhouse gas, is six times denser than air. Inhaling it — which is dangerous — lowers the timbre of a person's voice. Sulfur trioxide is the primary agent in acid rain. In high concentrations, exposure to hydrogen sulfide can quickly lead to death by respiratory paralysis. In small concentrations it can be metabolized, however. Hydrogen sulfide is insidious because it deadens the sense of smell, meaning that those exposed do not realize their risk. There are eleven isotopes of sulfur. Four of them are found in nature and those are not radioactive. Sulfur occurs in nature around volcanoes and hot springs. It is also found in meteorites. For commercial purposes, humans extract sulfur from wells sunk into salt domes along the Gulf Coast of the United States. Heated water is forced into the wells to melt the sulfur, which is then brought to the surface. Sulfur occurs in natural gas and petroleum crudes and must be removed from them in order for these products to be used. Historically, the removal process has been done chemically, which destroyed the sulfur. Newer processes allow the sulfur to be recovered for human use.\n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477573,"object_id":"mossman831370232065","particle_type":"maintitle","picture":null,"text":"Nitrogen","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477587,"object_id":"mossman83_1370232158","particle_type":"image","picture":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-particles-700/mossman83_1370232158.jpg"},{"type":"particle","particle_id":1477591,"object_id":"mossman831370232196","particle_type":"bodytext","picture":null,"text":"Because nitrogen is a component of all proteins, it is crucial to life. Nitrogen is found in all living systems as part of the composition of biological compounds. Nitrogen has the appearance of water as a liquid at the boiling point, as it is also colorless and odorless. It is generally considered an inert element. When a water solution of ammonium nitrite is heated, it forms nitrogen gas. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are formed when organic matter containing compounds of these metals decompose. Other inorganic nitrogen compounds include nitric acid, ammonia, the oxides and cyanides. Nitrogen compounds are found in foods, organic materials, fertilizers, explosives and poisons. Nitrogen gas makes up 78.1 percent of Earth’s air, by volume, compared to Mars, which is only 2.6 percent nitrogen. Nitrogen gas can be obtained by liquefaction and fractional distillation, and there is an inexhaustible supply in our atmosphere. The nitrogen cycle is one of the most crucial natural processes necessary to sustain life. While nitrogen gas is relatively inert, bacteria in the soil employ a method to produce nitrogen for plants to grow. Animals eat the plant material where the nitrogen has been incorporated into their system, primarily and complete the cycle when other bacteria convert the waste nitrogen compounds back to nitrogen gas.\n","content_type":"","title":"","shrink":null}],"theme":{"createdAt":"2016-04-22T04:54:07.000Z","updatedAt":"2016-12-28T10:33:06.000Z","logoImages":[""],"charts":{"wordcloud":{"labels":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"Arial"}},"treemap":{"labels":{"value":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"},"name":{"fontWeight":"700","fontFamily":"PT Sans Narrow"}}},"table":{"cellBackground":"#ffffff","headerBackground":"#eeeeee","cellColor":"#444444","headerColor":"#444444","shapeFill":"307d99"}},"color":{"bg":"#ffffff","text":"#000000","chart":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#767676"},"element":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#000000"}},"colorPresets":[],"localFonts":[],"font":{"common":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans 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