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#acacac;padding-top:3px;font-family:Arial;font-size:10px;text-align:center;\"><a target=\"_blank\" href=\"https://infogr.am/re_all_1-25850677\" style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\">Religion & Employment</a> | <a style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\" href=\"https://infogr.am\" target=\"_blank\">Create infographics</a></div>","embedIframe":"<iframe src=\"//e.infogr.am/re_all_1-25850677?src=embed\" width=\"550\" height=\"\" scrolling=\"no\" frameborder=\"0\" style=\"border:none;\"></iframe><div style=\"width:100%;border-top:1px solid #acacac;padding-top:3px;font-family:Arial;font-size:10px;text-align:center;\"><a target=\"_blank\" href=\"https://infogr.am/re_all_1-25850677\" style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\">Religion & Employment</a> | <a style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\" href=\"https://infogr.am\" target=\"_blank\">Create infographics</a></div>","embed":"<script id=\"infogram_0_re_all_1-25850677\" src=\"//e.infogr.am/js/embed.js?JLl\" type=\"text/javascript\"></script><div style=\"width:100%;border-top:1px solid #acacac;padding-top:3px;font-family:Arial;font-size:10px;text-align:center;\"><a target=\"_blank\" href=\"https://infogr.am/re_all_1-25850677\" style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\">Religion & Employment</a> | <a style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\" href=\"https://infogr.am\" target=\"_blank\">Create infographics</a></div>","theme":{"colors":["#e84f2c","#e31307","#e37900","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"logoImages":[],"color":{"bg":"#ffffff","text":"#000000","chart":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#7d7d7d"},"element":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#000000"}},"colorPresets":[],"localFonts":[],"font":{"common":{"fontFamily":"PT Sans 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#000000;\n border-bottom: 8px solid #000;\n line-height: 65px;\n margin-right: 20px;\n margin-left: 20px;\n}\n\n.chart-title {\n font-family: PT Sans Narrow;\n font-weight: 700;\n font-size: 36px;\n color: #000000;\n border-bottom: 4px solid #000;\n margin-right: 20px;\n margin-left: 20px;\n}\n\ndiv.quoted {\n margin-right: 20px;\n margin-left: 20px;\n}\n\ndiv.body-text {\n margin-right: 20px;\n margin-left: 20px;\n}\n\ndiv.picture {\n margin-right: 20px;\n margin-left: 20px;\n}\n\n.chart {\n margin-left: 20px;\n margin-right: 20px;\n}\n\n.bodytext {\n font-family: Verdana;\n font-weight: 400;\n font-size: 14px;\n color: #000000;\n}\n\n.quote {\n padding: 20px;\n font-family: PT Serif;\n font-style: italic;\n font-size: 30px;\n color: #ffffff;\n text-align: center;\n background: #000;\n}\n\n.quotetitle {\n font-size: 24px;\n}\n\n.quote .notch {\n position: absolute;\n left: 0%;\n top: 50%;\n margin-top: -13px;\n width: 13px;\n height: 27px;\n background: url(/i/templates/32/light-quote_L.png);\n}\n\n.quote .notch.border-notch {\n background: url(/i/templates/32/light-quote_R.png);\n left: auto;\n right: 0%;\n}\n\n.headline.active:hover {\n color: #e84f2c;\n}\n\n#madewith.active a:hover {\n color: #e84f2c !important;\n}\n\n.titlepopup1,\n.titlepopup2 {\n border-color: #e84f2c;\n}\n\n.shrink .chart > .inner {\n padding-left: 10px;\n padding-right: 10px;\n}\n\n.shrink .chart {\n margin-left: 0;\n margin-right: 0;\n}","fonts":"PT+Sans+Narrow:400,700;PT+Sans:400,700;PT+Serif:400italic","width":550,"public":1,"thumb":"/i/templates/S/asketic.png","order":3,"picture":"/i/templates/L/asketic.png","usergroup":"","author":"infogr.am","title":"Asketic-new","_id":32},"elements":[{"shrink":null,"title":null,"content_type":"","text":"Religion & Employment","picture":null,"particle_type":"maintitle","object_id":"fefddf29-eadf-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_id":17289049,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) recently released data for 2009-2010 on employment in India, grouped by religion. These numbers have been collected alongside the overall employment numbers for every big round of the NSSO, and give a real insight into the nature of work that different religious communities are concentrated in.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377616311","particle_id":2111830,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"Religious Composition","content_type":"","text":"India","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas1_1377591094","particle_id":2108583,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Take a few moments to see, at a glance, the religious composition of India (figures in per cent).","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377591809","particle_id":2108695,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":0,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#b59d02","#096be3","#28a100","#de4c09","#363636","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{},"data":[[["Composition","All India"],["Hinduism","82.3"],["Islam","12.6"],["Christianity","2.1"],["Sikhism","1.7"],["Others","1.3"]]],"chart_type_nr":2,"chart_type":"Pie","object_id":"tulas1_1377608132","chart_id":2673530,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"Enter quote author","content_type":"","text":"The Jobs Scene","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas11377593988","particle_id":2109019,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"The NSSO splits the rural employed into those self-employed in agriculture or non-agriculture; those doing labour, agricultural and non-agricultural, and 'others'. The urban employed are split into the self-employed, those in salaried jobs, those doing casual labour and 'others'.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377594007","particle_id":2109022,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"How are people employed?","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11377593477","particle_id":2108927,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Although India, particularly rural India, seems to be a country of the self-employed, the evidence is that these are not the sort of dynamic, successful entrepreneurs one associates with the term. More simply, in India self-employment is often close to being a proxy for 'in wait of a good job'.\n\n(Figures in per-thousand)","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377593513","particle_id":2108934,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":0,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#e84f2c","#e31307","#e37900","#e4ba51","#9e5303","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af","#cccccc"],"custom":{"showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["","Rural India","Urban India"],["Self-employed in agri. labour","319"],["Self-employed in non-agri. labour","155"],["Agri. labour","256"],["Non-agri. labour","148"],["Others","122"],["Self-employed","","347"],["Regular wage/Salaried","","397"],["Casual labour","","134"],["Others","","121"]]],"chart_type_nr":2,"chart_type":"Pie","object_id":"tulas1_1377594150","chart_id":2671978,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"In their 2011 book 'Poor Economics', the economists Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo looked at an 18-country data-set and found that the while the poor were overwhelmingly self-employed, these business were tiny (average number of paid employees ranged from 0 to 0.57) and made very little money. \"The enterprises of the poor often seem more a way to buy a job when a more conventional employment opportunity is not available than a reflection of a particular entrepreneurial urge,\" they wrote.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377593531","particle_id":2108936,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"And when you factor in religion?","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11377593543","particle_id":2108941,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"It's interesting that while 'self-employed in agriculture' is the most common category of employment for all other communities in rural India, for Muslims it is 'self-employed in non-agriculture'.\n\n(Figures in per-thousand)","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377593806","particle_id":2108981,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":2,"dimensions":[],"colors":[],"custom":{"height":"482","showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["","Hindus","Muslims","Christians","Sikhs","Others","All India*"],["Self-employed in agri. labour","332","214","295","356","356","319"],["Self-employed in non-agri. labour","145","249","147","124","86","155"],["Rural agri. labour","261","232","209","203","313","256"],["Other rural labour","144","175","142","164","123","148"],["Others","118","130","207","153","122","122"]]],"chart_type_nr":2,"chart_type":"Pie","object_id":"tulas1_1377592785","chart_id":2671740,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"*Including 'no result'.\n\nIn urban areas, Muslims are highly over-represented in the 'self-employed' category, which usually includes small vendors and other low wage work. This is presumably correlated to their lower levels of education.\n\n(Figures in per-thousand)","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377593347","particle_id":2108909,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":2,"dimensions":[],"colors":[],"custom":{"height":"487","showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["","Hindus","Muslims","Christians","Sikhs","Others","All India*"],["Self-employed","333","455","221","361","348","347"],["Regular wage/Salaried","412","304","428","357","412","397"],["Casual labour","130","155","180","140","116","134"],["Others","125","86","171","142","123","121"]]],"chart_type_nr":2,"chart_type":"Pie","object_id":"tulas1_1377593600","chart_id":2671878,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"*Including 'no result'.\n\nIt is possible that other factors are at play too. The economist Sukhadeo Thorat and others found that fictitious job applications sent using Muslim surnames were less likely to get called for interviews than similarly-qualified fictitious applicants with an upper-caste Hindu last name.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377593563","particle_id":2108949,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"Enter quote author","content_type":"","text":"The No-jobs Scene","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas11377595127","particle_id":2109109,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"In poorer countries, unemployment levels tend to be low because everyone has to do some work. It doesn't necessarily mean this is good or remunerative work.\n\nThe chart below shows the proportions of unemployed people in different categories. (Figures in per-thousand)","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377595162","particle_id":2109116,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":1,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#a53021","#45187b","#1c8c3a","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{},"data":[[["Rural","Hindus","Muslims","Christians","Sikhs","Others","Overall"],["Rural males","15","19","26","27","15","16"],["Rural females","14","20","60","17","6","16"],["Rural persons","15","19","39","24","12","16"]],[["Urban","Hinduism","Islam","Christianity","Sikhism","Others","Overall"],["Urban males","29","25","22","56","19","28"],["Urban females","58","68","46","83","9","57"],["Urban persons","34","32","29","61","17","34"]]],"chart_type_nr":4,"chart_type":"HorizontalBar","object_id":"tulas1_1377612163","chart_id":2674255,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"And for women?","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11377595898","particle_id":2109185,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Over the last two years, there has been a lot of concern over the low (and falling) female Labour Force Particpation Rates (LFPR) in India. This is the proportion of women who count themselves as part of the workforce, whether they have work or are seeking work. While higher education and falling fertility were expected to lead to more women joining the workforce, the reverse has been happening, as women battle social norms and struggle for decent work.\n\nThe numbers below show the LFPRs for women in different categories. (Figures in per-thousand)","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377599309","particle_id":2109471,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":0,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#b32100","#7ca103","#e37900","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{},"data":[[["Religion","Hinduism","Islam","Christianity","Sikhism","Others"],["Rural","279","146","346","268","293"],["Urban","151","101","226","167","184"]]],"chart_type_nr":25,"chart_type":"Histogram","object_id":"tulas1_1377621191","chart_id":2675875,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":" Muslims continue to have the lowest LFPRs for women, and Christians the highest.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377599290","particle_id":2109469,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"are women working?","content_type":"","text":"At what education level","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas11377599376","particle_id":2109478,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"It's sometimes worth looking at female LFPRs by education level - that is, the proportion of women at each educational level who are in the workforce - just to get a reality check on the nature of women's employment in India.\n\n(Figures in per-thousand)","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377599446","particle_id":2109484,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Rural women","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377599482","particle_id":2109486,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":1,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#072625","#0e4847","#156a69","#1c8c8a","#228dab","#0b3736","#115957","#001f9d","#001f9d","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{},"data":[[["Literacy","Hindus","Muslims","Christians","Sikhs","All*"],["Not literate","458","235","482","398","432"],["Literate, up to primary","407","207","528","341","384"],["Middle","303","161","421","277","294"],["Secondary edu.","226","111","297","301","222"],["Higher secondary","183","116","274","201","183"],["Graduate & above","293","245","404","366","297"],["Secondary & above","225","128","322","282","224"]]],"chart_type_nr":4,"chart_type":"HorizontalBar","object_id":"tulas1_1377599629","chart_id":2672596,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Urban women","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377600269","particle_id":2109565,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":1,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#072625","#0e4847","#156a69","#1c8c8a","#228dab","#0b3736","#115957","#001f9d","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{},"data":[[["Literacy","","Hindus","Muslims","Christians","Sikhs","Overall"],[],["Not literate",null,"250","156","263","232","231"],["Literate, up to primary",null,"217","146","249","181","206"],["Middle",null,"157","122","223","145","154"],["Secondary edu.",null,"98","50","158","155","97"],["Higher secondary",null,"90","88","183","66","94"],["Graduate & above",null,"250","239","463","292","259"],["Secondary & above",null,"156","107","316","178","159"]]],"chart_type_nr":4,"chart_type":"HorizontalBar","object_id":"tulas1_1377600334","chart_id":2672702,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"In rural areas, it the least educated women who are most prepared to work\" while in urban areas, the picture is slightly more even. Remember, the numbers reflect even those women who are seeking work. So India's most educated women - small in number though they are - are not really representative of its workforce.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377600962","particle_id":2109629,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"Enter quote author","content_type":"","text":"How about education?","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas11377601011","particle_id":2109631,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377602165","particle_id":2109709,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Rural","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11377603497","particle_id":2109863,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Male (Figures in per-cent)","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377603389","particle_id":2109851,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":2,"dimensions":[],"colors":[],"custom":{"showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["Rural males","Hindus","Muslims","Christians","Sikhs","Others","Overall"],["Not literate","25.7","30.9","14.2","25.7","21.1","26"],["Literate & up to primary","24.8","30.7","24.6","22.4","22.8","25.3"],["Middle","20.6","19.1","23.2","18.8","27","20.5"],["Secondary edu.","14.9","11.2","18.4","18.6","15.1","14.7"],["Higher secondary","8.4","4.6","8.7","11.5","8.1","8"],["Diploma/Cert.","0.9","0.8","3.2","0.7","2.2","1"],["Graduate","3.9","2.1","6.3","1.9","3.1","3.7"],["PG & above","0.8","0.6","1.5","0.3","0.8","0.8"]]],"chart_type_nr":2,"chart_type":"Pie","object_id":"tulas1_1377602567","chart_id":2672917,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Female (Figures in per-cent)","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377603433","particle_id":2109856,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":2,"dimensions":[],"colors":[],"custom":{"showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["Rural females","Hindus","Muslims","Christians","Sikhs","Others","Overall"],["Not literate","50.5","52.6","23.2","40.3","43.3","49.8"],["Literate & up to primary","21.3","26","26","20.5","21","22"],["Middle","13.4","12.4","20.2","11","19.6","13.5"],["Secondary edu.","8.2","5.7","15.2","15.8","10.4","8.2"],["Higher secondary","4.4","2.1","7.2","8.7","3.3","4.2"],["Diploma/Cert.","0.3","0.3","3","0.4","0.4","0.4"],["Graduate","1.6","0.9","4.3","2.6","1.7","1.6"],["PG & 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Muslims remain by far India's poorest community, and Sikhs the richest in both urban and rural India.\n\nData: Monthly per capita expenditure, in rupees","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377605209","particle_id":2110026,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":0,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#b59d02","#096be3","#28a100","#de4c09","#363636","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{},"data":[[["Religion + Finance","Rural","Urban","Rural + Urban"],["Hindus","888","1797","1125"],["Muslims","833","1272","980"],["Christians","1296","2053","1543"],["Sikhs","1498","2180","1659"],["Others","880","2074","1402"],["All*","901","1733","1128"]]],"chart_type_nr":1,"chart_type":"Bar","object_id":"tulas1_1377605293","chart_id":2673169,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"*Including 'no result'.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377605653","particle_id":2110081,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"religion & employment.","content_type":"","text":"That's the story of","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas11377605713","particle_id":2110093,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"By Vasudevan Mukunth and Rukmini S","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11377616951","particle_id":2111950,"type":"particle"}],"properties":{"embed_button":"enabled","custom_logo":"none","title_link":"infogram","whitelabel":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"rtl":false,"transparent":false,"publishType":0},"copyright":null,"width":550,"embedImageUrl":"https://infogram.io/p/9dc0bff770216db2dc418b4b1d72867b.png","thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/tulas1_1377591094.jpg","publicAccess":true,"public":true,"tags":"","pubtitle":"re_all_1","title":"Religion & Employment","path":"re_all_1-25850677","user_id":503757,"theme_id":32,"block_id":"tulas1_1377591094","id":1552675}