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{"embedWordpressImage":"[infogram id=\"pc_crimes_all_1-0\" prefix=\"Qz4\" format=\"image\"]","embedWordpress":"[infogram id=\"pc_crimes_all_1-0\" prefix=\"Abb\" format=\"interactive\"]","embedImageIframe":"<iframe src=\"//e.infogr.am/pc_crimes_all_1-0?src=embed&amp;type=image\" width=\"550\" height=\"\" scrolling=\"no\" frameborder=\"0\" style=\"border:none;\"></iframe><div style=\"width:100%;border-top:1px solid #acacac;padding-top:3px;font-family:Arial;font-size:10px;text-align:center;\"><a target=\"_blank\" href=\"https://infogr.am/pc_crimes_all_1-0\" style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\">Party to the crimes</a> | <a style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\" href=\"https://infogr.am\" target=\"_blank\">Create infographics</a></div>","embedImageResponsive":"<script id=\"infogramimg_0_pc_crimes_all_1-0\" src=\"//e.infogr.am/js/embed.js?Dfm\" type=\"text/javascript\"></script><div style=\"width:100%;border-top:1px solid #acacac;padding-top:3px;font-family:Arial;font-size:10px;text-align:center;\"><a target=\"_blank\" href=\"https://infogr.am/pc_crimes_all_1-0\" style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\">Party to the crimes</a> | <a style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\" href=\"https://infogr.am\" target=\"_blank\">Create infographics</a></div>","embedIframe":"<iframe src=\"//e.infogr.am/pc_crimes_all_1-0?src=embed\" width=\"550\" height=\"\" scrolling=\"no\" frameborder=\"0\" style=\"border:none;\"></iframe><div style=\"width:100%;border-top:1px solid #acacac;padding-top:3px;font-family:Arial;font-size:10px;text-align:center;\"><a target=\"_blank\" href=\"https://infogr.am/pc_crimes_all_1-0\" style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\">Party to the crimes</a> | <a style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\" href=\"https://infogr.am\" target=\"_blank\">Create infographics</a></div>","embed":"<script id=\"infogram_0_pc_crimes_all_1-0\" src=\"//e.infogr.am/js/embed.js?koD\" type=\"text/javascript\"></script><div style=\"width:100%;border-top:1px solid #acacac;padding-top:3px;font-family:Arial;font-size:10px;text-align:center;\"><a target=\"_blank\" href=\"https://infogr.am/pc_crimes_all_1-0\" style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\">Party to the crimes</a> | <a style=\"color:#acacac;text-decoration:none;\" href=\"https://infogr.am\" target=\"_blank\">Create infographics</a></div>","theme":{"colors":["#e84f2c","#e31307","#e37900","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"logoImages":[""],"color":{"bg":"#ffffff","text":"#000000","chart":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#7d7d7d"},"element":{"bg":"transparent","text":"#000000"}},"colorPresets":[],"localFonts":[],"font":{"common":{"textAlign":"initial","fontSize":"16","fontStyle":"normal","fontWeight":"400","fontFamily":"PT Sans 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margin-right: 20px;\n margin-left: 20px;\n}\n\ndiv.picture {\n margin-right: 20px;\n margin-left: 20px;\n}\n\n.chart {\n margin-left: 20px;\n margin-right: 20px;\n}\n\n.bodytext {\n font-family: Verdana;\n font-weight: 400;\n font-size: 14px;\n color: #000000;\n}\n\n.quote {\n padding: 20px;\n font-family: PT Serif;\n font-style: italic;\n font-size: 30px;\n color: #ffffff;\n text-align: center;\n background: #000;\n}\n\n.quotetitle {\n font-size: 24px;\n}\n\n.quote .notch {\n position: absolute;\n left: 0%;\n top: 50%;\n margin-top: -13px;\n width: 13px;\n height: 27px;\n background: url(/i/templates/32/light-quote_L.png);\n}\n\n.quote .notch.border-notch {\n background: url(/i/templates/32/light-quote_R.png);\n left: auto;\n right: 0%;\n}\n\n.headline.active:hover {\n color: #e84f2c;\n}\n\n#madewith.active a:hover {\n color: #e84f2c !important;\n}\n\n.titlepopup1,\n.titlepopup2 {\n border-color: #e84f2c;\n}\n\n.shrink .chart > .inner {\n padding-left: 10px;\n padding-right: 10px;\n}\n\n.shrink .chart {\n margin-left: 0;\n margin-right: 0;\n}","fonts":"PT+Sans+Narrow:400,700;PT+Sans:400,700;PT+Serif:400italic","width":550,"public":1,"thumb":"/i/templates/S/asketic.png","order":3,"picture":"/i/templates/L/asketic.png","usergroup":"","author":"infogr.am","title":"Asketic-new","_id":32},"elements":[{"shrink":null,"title":null,"content_type":"","text":"Party to the crimes","picture":null,"particle_type":"maintitle","object_id":"ff30145b-eadf-11e4-a037-7b5f270fdca9","particle_id":17289085,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Following the Union Cabinet's very public contortions over an ordinance that sought to overturn it, there's renewed interest in the Supreme Court's ruling on legislators convicted of criminal charges.<br><br>The ruling, which now stands, says that any MP or MLA convicted in a criminal case (that is mentioned in sections 8 (1), (2) or (3) of the Representation of People Act) stands disqualified immediately. He or she can no longer avail of the now struck down section 8 (4) of the Act that allowed an MP/ MLA to file an appeal in order to escape disqualification.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381128903","particle_id":2518326,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"&amp; MPs","content_type":"","text":"Criminal cases","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas1_1381128738","particle_id":2518303,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"So it seems like a good time to look at how many MPs with criminal cases and convictions we have in Parliament. For much of the analysis here, we will be using data compiled by the tireless Association for Democratic Reforms from affidavits submitted by candidates to the Election Commission.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381128964","particle_id":2518336,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"How many have criminal cases against them?","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11381128978","particle_id":2518341,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":2,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#00a47b","#0d1f45","#be2900","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{"showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["MPs with criminal cases","Lok Sabha","Rajya Sabha","MLAs"],["Without criminal cases","381","192","2774"],["With criminal cases","86","24","1258"],["With serious criminal cases","76","16"]]],"chart_type_nr":2,"chart_type":"Pie","object_id":"tulas1_1381129008","chart_id":3085265,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Nearly one out of three Lok Sabha MPs and MLAs of state assemblies (that have had elections since 2008) have a pending criminal case against them while 18% of Rajya Sabha MPs have criminal charges.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381129653","particle_id":2518428,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Over 10 years...","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11381130017","particle_id":2518457,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Looking at ten years of elections, the Shiv Sena has the highest proportion of MPs and MLAs with criminal cases, followed by the RJD (whose leader's conviction sparked this debate in the first place) and the JD(U). The two biggest parties send an equal number of MPs and MLAs with criminal cases to represent the people, but the proportions are lower.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381129966","particle_id":2518453,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":0,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#1a1a1a","#be2900","#e37900","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{},"data":[[["MPs/ MLAs combined over a ten year-period","Shiv Sena","RJD","JD(U)","BJP","Congress"],["Total","137","125","272","1689","2451"],["With criminal cases","103","58","120","520","527"]]],"chart_type_nr":25,"chart_type":"Histogram","object_id":"tulas1_1381130105","chart_id":3085400,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"Enter quote author","content_type":"","text":"The Party","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas11381129916","particle_id":2518451,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"The current Lok Sabha has 162 MPs with pending criminal cases.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381130027","particle_id":2518458,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"This is a dummy text","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11381129996","particle_id":2518456,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":0,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#0d1f45","#be2900","#e37900","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{"height":"655"},"data":[[["Party - MPs","Congress","BJP","SP","BSP","JD(U)","Trinamool","BJD","DMK","AIADMK","NCP","Shiv Sena"],["With criminal cases","44","44","9","6","8","4","4","4","4","4","9"],["With serious cases","13","19","8","6","3","4","1","1","4","3","3"]]],"chart_type_nr":17,"chart_type":"HorizontalStackBar","object_id":"tulas1_1381132261","chart_id":3085750,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"There is remarkable bipartisanship when it comes to MPs with criminal cases. Between them, the Congress and the BJP have 44 MPs each with criminal cases.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381135294","particle_id":2519162,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"do these MPs come from?","content_type":"","text":"Which States","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas11381135412","particle_id":2519172,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Uttar Pradesh has nearly half the total MPs with criminal cases in the Lok Sabha, despite having just one-seventh of all MPs.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381135734","particle_id":2519242,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"This is a dummy text","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11381135808","particle_id":2519255,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":0,"dimensions":[],"colors":[],"custom":{"showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["State","Total no. of MPs"],["Uttar Pradesh","80"],["Maharashtra","48"],["Andhra Pradesh","42"],["Bihar","40"],["Gujarat","26"]]],"chart_type_nr":1,"chart_type":"Bar","object_id":"tulas1_1381136089","chart_id":3086293,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Of the 20 MPs with the most criminal cases against them, 7 are from UP, 4 from Gujarat, 2 from Bihar, 1 each from Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and Jharkhand.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381136323","particle_id":2519330,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":2,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#00a47b","#0d1f45","#be2900","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{"showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["State","Uttar Pradesh","Maharashtra","Andhra Pradesh","Bihar","Gujarat"],[],["No. of 'clean' MPs","49","22","31","22","15"],["No. of MPs with non-serious criminal cases","9","16","8","12","4"],["No. of MPs with serious cases","22","10","3","6","7"]]],"chart_type_nr":2,"chart_type":"Pie","object_id":"tulas1_1381135875","chart_id":3086255,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"&amp; the booty","content_type":"","text":"Crimes, convictions","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas11381136673","particle_id":2519367,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Yes, it's true that many MPs are accused of serious crime, but the numbers are smaller than they are often made out to be.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381143338","particle_id":2520379,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Cases by type of crime","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11381143508","particle_id":2520402,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":0,"dimensions":[],"colors":[],"custom":{"height":"365","showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["Type of crime","No. of MPs"],["Murder and related","18"],["Attempt to murder","24"],["Voluntarily causing hurt with weapon","20"],["Rape","0"],["Kidnapping","10"],["Forgery","44"],["Cheating","31"],["Communal disharmony","10"]]],"chart_type_nr":1,"chart_type":"Bar","object_id":"tulas1_1381143537","chart_id":3087530,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Convictions","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11381143908","particle_id":2520463,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Where the numbers start to fall apart is when it comes to convictions. These are the numbers for MPs and MLAs who declared in their election affidavits that they have been convicted in a criminal case. (It does not include MPs who were convicted after 2009, including Rajya Sabha MP Rasheed Masood and Lok Sabha MP Lalu Yadav who were convicted after the SC judgement.)","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381143932","particle_id":2520469,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"While the SC judgement does not apply retrospectively, it is instructive to look at how many of these MPs and MLAs would have been disqualified had the SC ruling been in force, that is if their convictions satisfy section 8 of the Representation of People Act. By our calculations, this number would be just 4.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381143891","particle_id":2520459,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Sitting MPs and MLAs (Lok Sabha 2009 and State Assemblies since 2008): 4807","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381144100","particle_id":2520507,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":0,"dimensions":[],"colors":[],"custom":{"showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["Category","How many?"],["Sitting MPs/MLAs","4807"],["Sitting MPs/MLAs with declared cases","1460"],["Sitting MPs/MLAs with serious declared cases","688"],["Convictions of sitting MPs/MLAs","24"]]],"chart_type_nr":4,"chart_type":"HorizontalBar","object_id":"tulas1_1381158961","chart_id":3091307,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Sitting MPs and MLAs whose conviction would have invited disqualification had the SC judgment been in effect: 4<br><br>Sitting MPs (only) with prior convictions: 1","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381160687","particle_id":2523900,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Just 1 sitting MP has been convicted of a crime by any court -&nbsp;Navjot Singh Sidhu, the BJP MP from Amritsar who was convicted by the High Court of murder. While a conviction for murder would disqualify an MP as per the SC judgement, Mr. Sidhu resigned his seat after his initial conviction (and re-contested after its suspension by the Supreme Court), so the question of his disqualification is anyway moot.<br><br>It's worth rethinking whether the level of noise over MPs with criminal cases is justified by the numbers. Yes, these numbers might signify how difficult it is to a convict a powerful person, but they might just as well signify the extent to which the law is used as a tool by political parties to&nbsp;harass&nbsp;each other.<br>","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381160619","particle_id":2523889,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Correlation with assets","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11381145214","particle_id":2520670,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"One concern is that legislators with criminal cases tend to be powerful in other ways too. Analysing MPs and MLAs elected over a 10-year period, ADR found that the average MP/ MLA with a criminal charge tended to be richer than the average candidate or the average legislator.<br><br>Average assets (in Rs. crore)...","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381145238","particle_id":2520674,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":0,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#e84f2c","#e31307","#e37900","#be2900","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{"showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["Average assets","Amount (in Rs. crore)"],["Of 62,847 candidates","1.37"],["Of 8,790 MPs/MLAs","3.83"],["Of 2,575 MPs/MLAs with criminal cases","4.30"],["Of 1,187 MPs/MLAs with serious charges","4.38"]]],"chart_type_nr":4,"chart_type":"HorizontalBar","object_id":"tulas1_1381147575","chart_id":3088194,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"&nbsp;","content_type":"","text":"Chances of being re-elected","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas11381147868","particle_id":2521118,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"How do these people come to power any way?","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381147893","particle_id":2521129,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Getting tickets","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11381147936","particle_id":2521136,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Political parties do not shy away from giving repeated opportunities to those with criminal cases.<br><br>Total candidates from 2004-2013: 62,847. Of them...","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381148158","particle_id":2521173,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":0,"dimensions":[],"colors":[],"custom":{"showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["Getting tickets (2004-2013)","How many?"],[],[],["Repeat candidates","4181"],["Of repeats, those with criminal case the first time","1072"],["Of repeats, those with criminal cases the second time, too","788"],["Those with criminal case the 2nd time only","541"]]],"chart_type_nr":4,"chart_type":"HorizontalBar","object_id":"tulas1_1381148179","chart_id":3088327,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Getting re-elected","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytitle","object_id":"tulas11381149530","particle_id":2521489,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Once given a ticket, those with criminal charges are more likely to get elected than others, with a success rate nearly double that of 'clean' candidates. Voters do not seem to mind candidates with criminal records.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381149558","particle_id":2521498,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":2,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#006666","#990000","#e37900","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{"showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["Re-election rate","With criminal records","Without criminal records"],["How many won","2575","6215"],["How many didn't win","8488","45569"]]],"chart_type_nr":2,"chart_type":"Pie","object_id":"tulas1_1381149711","chart_id":3088763,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"Enter quote author","content_type":"","text":"Participation","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas11381150004","particle_id":2521572,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"And finally, the key issue. How good are MPs with criminal cases as against 'others'? The performance of parliamentarians is hard to measure, and we have to rely on the quantitative data available. For this, we turn to recent analysis by political scientists Pradeep Chhibber and Rahul Verma of the University of California, Berkeley. They compared the performance of MPs with and without criminal records and found little to separate them.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381150072","particle_id":2521585,"type":"particle"},{"modifier":0,"dimensions":[],"colors":["#be2900","#0d1f45","#00a47b","#e4ba51","#e3b786","#825846","#59392a","#564c30","#897d6e","#627c82","#93af8a","#a0ba5e","#63ba5e","#5ebab2","#6596b7","#b477ba","#473057","#bc416e","#c896af"],"custom":{"showInLineValues":true},"data":[[["","Attendance (%)","Issues raised in the House","MPLADS spent (%)"],["MPs with serious charges","70","272","77"],["MPs with non-serious charges","74","305","74"],["MPs with no criminal charges","79","232","79"]]],"chart_type_nr":1,"chart_type":"Bar","object_id":"tulas1_1381150313","chart_id":3088870,"type":"chart"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Patronage, protection, accountability, efficiency - there are many theories for why people elect MPs with criminal cases against them repeatedly. Ultimately, even if courts fail or lag behind in ruling on cases involving legislators, the court of the people delivers its verdict every five years.","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381150554","particle_id":2521664,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"whom you're going to vote for?","content_type":"","text":"So, does this change","picture":null,"particle_type":"quote","object_id":"tulas11381222212","particle_id":2534204,"type":"particle"},{"shrink":null,"title":"","content_type":"","text":"Infographics by Vasudevan Mukunth &amp; Rukmini S","picture":null,"particle_type":"bodytext","object_id":"tulas11381222268","particle_id":2534212,"type":"particle"}],"properties":{"embed_button":"enabled","custom_logo":"none","title_link":"infogram","whitelabel":false,"export_settings":{"showGrid":true,"showValues":true},"rtl":false,"transparent":false,"publishType":0},"copyright":null,"width":550,"embedImageUrl":"https://infogram.io/p/f4a22e432a327d16d5865d2cbee85413.png","thumb":"https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/infogram-thumbs-200/tulas1_1381128738.jpg","publicAccess":true,"public":true,"tags":"","pubtitle":"pc_crimes_all_1","title":"Party to the crimes","path":"pc_crimes_all_1-0","user_id":503757,"theme_id":32,"block_id":"tulas1_1381128738","id":1758860}